Spain, officially known as the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España in Spanish and Galician, Regne d'Espanya in Catalan, Kingdom of Spain in Basque) is an independent state in Southern Europe and North and West Africa (with the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla and with the Canary Islands). The Spanish mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea (in which the country's Balearic Islands lie), to the north by the Bay of Biscay and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. It borders Portugal, France, Andorra and Gibraltar on land. Spain is the largest of the three independent states that lie on the Iberian Peninsula. Its capital and most populous city is Madrid.
Several peoples, such as the Celts, the Iberians, the Romans, the Visigoths and the Moors, settled in what is now modern Spain. In the Middle Ages, for more than five centuries, large areas were under Islamic rule, a fraction of which existed until 1492, when the Christian kingdoms of Aragon and Castile captured the last Iberian Muslim state, the Emirate of Granada, after 770 years. In the same year, Christopher Columbus reached the New World, establishing the world-dominating Spanish Empire. Spain became the most powerful state in Europe, but wars and other internal troubles brought the country down. In the middle of the 20th century, Francisco Franco established a dictatorship in Spain, and a democratic state was established only in 1978. The country joined the European Union in 1986, after which Spain experienced an economic and cultural renaissance until the global economic crisis that broke out in 2008, when its economy fell into a serious crisis. The European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the World Trade Organization and the Economic Cooperation and member of the Development Organization.
The origin of the name of the people and country
The ultimate origin of the word Spanish is the Latin HISPANIOLUS, i.e. approximately 'Hispanic', which entered the Provençal language in the form of Espaignol, then into Spanish with the spelling español, and then into the other (New Latin) languages. In the Hungarian language, a form of Spanish from the Northern Italian dialect – pronounced with an s – has become naturalized. However, while in our language the word "Spanish" can refer both to a person or thing from Spain and a Spanish-speaking person, in Spanish the concepts Spanish (from Spain) and Spanish-speaking (Spanish-speaking) are distinguished from each other: for the former, español, for the latter, hispano or latino are applied. The country's name - España - is a continuation of the Latin HISPANIA, in medieval Spanish it even appeared in the form Hespaña.
It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal and Gibraltar. In the north, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Andorra. It is in contact with the Mediterranean Sea (1,663 km) to the east and southeast, the Bay of Biscay to the north, and the Bay of Cádiz to the northwest and southwest are also its natural border to the Atlantic Ocean (711 km). In the south, it is separated from Africa by the Strait of Gibraltar (14 km). The total length of the coast is 3144 km.
Apart from the land areas, the parts of the kingdom are:
The Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea are 5,014 km², consisting of two main islands (Mallorca and Menorca), two small islands (Ibiza and Formentera), and 150 other small rocks.
The Canary Islands are 7,550 km² in the Atlantic Ocean and consist of a total of 7 islands and 6 smaller rock islands. Western islands: Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, Hierro, eastern islands: Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and five small islands. It is 1,100 km from Cádiz. Ceuta and Melilla cities in northern Africa and several islands in the Mediterranean near the Strait of Gibraltar such as Penon de Velez, Alhucemas