Sumen (Шумен in Bulgarian, Şumla or Şumnu in Turkish) is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria in the northeastern part of the country. It is the capital of the province of the same name. Between 1950 and 1965 it was called Kolarovgrad (Коларовград). It has a population of 103,016 [source?] [When?].
"The most influential Hungarian politician of the 19th century, Lajos Kossuth, spent only four months in a town named after the great Bulgarian ruler, Simeon the Great, yet a statue preserves his memory in the main square, and his former residence has been a memorial museum for more than fifty years."
The city certainly existed before 811, when Nikephoros besieged it. He lived his world age under Simeon the Great between 866 and 927, when it was a center of trade and religion. In 1388 it became part of the Ottoman Empire. Construction of his fortifications began in the 17th century, and in 1768 they were expanded by Grand Chief Pasha Hassan. It was besieged in vain by the Russian armies under the command of Rumyanshov in 1774, Kamenskoy in 1810 and Wittgenstein in 1828, so in 1829 Diebics bypassed it. In the Turkish war of 1877-78, Russian troops occupied it only after the peace was made, on July 23, 1878, when it became part of the new Bulgaria.
On a hill above Sumen stands a gigantic monument of 1300 years of Bulgarian history. The castle walls, the Tombul Mosque, the military casino and the Kossuth House are the main tourist attractions in the city.
Near the city is the Bird of Horse, perhaps the most special World Heritage Site in Bulgaria.
“During the campaign of János Hunyadi in 1444, the Crusaders successfully besieged and thus occupied the fortress, which was defended with extraordinary determination by the Turks. The victory came at a great price: the Crusaders suffered significant losses, seven hundred dying under the walls. After a successful siege, Hunyadi demolished the fortress so that it could no longer fall into Turkish hands. The city itself did not remain under Christian rule for long, as on November 10, 1444, the Crusaders suffered a decisive defeat in World War II. From the army of Sultan Murad. " Hunyadi's fighting success is commemorated with a castle game, in which the Association of the Golden Crosses of Debrecen also took part.
Perhaps the most famous Hungarian resident of Sumen was Lajos Kossuth, who "was forced to emigrate after the defeat of the War of Independence. The first stop of his journey was the Turkish Empire, where he spent two years, four months, from November 21, 1849 to February 26, 1850 The house of Sumeni has been a memorial museum for 50 years, with the opening of a new permanent exhibition of the Hungarian National Museum in 2006. At the entrance level of the 19th century Bulgarian building, we show the life and life of Lajos Kossuth with a map and pictures. Afterwards we enter the Sumenian bedroom of Lajos Kossuth, where we can look beyond the personal politicians of the great politician to the Sumenian life of the emigrants. " Kossuth moved from Sumla to Kütahya.
The third Hungarian aspect is that Sumen is a sister city of Debrecen.
József Bokor (ed.). The great lexicon of Pallas. Arcanum: FolioNET (1893–1897, 1998). ISBN 963 85923 2 X