Suriname

Article

November 28, 2021

Suriname (Dutch: [syriˈnaːmə], OH: “Suriname”), or officially known as the Republic of Suriname - formerly Dutch Guyana - is a state in northern South America.

Geography

Terrain

Most of it belongs to the forested mountainous mountains of Guyana. It is covered by rainforests and sparsely populated savannas. To the north lies a swampy coastal plain along the Atlantic Ocean. The latter is home to the majority of the population.

Hydrography

Major rivers of the country: Commewijne, Coppename, Corantijn, Cottica, Marowijne, Nickerie, Saramacca, Suriname, Tapanahony

Climate

Its equatorial climate is hot and rainy. The temperature does not change much during the year. There are two rainy seasons, April-August and November-February. The two "drier" seasons from August to November and February are approx. lasts until the end of March.

Wildlife, nature conservation

It is a sparsely populated country with extensive, still untouched forests covering 92% of its territory.

National Parks

12% of the country's territory is a national park.

Natural World Heritage Sites

Central Suriname Nature Reserve has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History

Europeans discovered the coasts of Guyana in the late 15th century. In the 17th century the English settled here, in 1667 the area was declared an official colony. In exchange for New Amsterdam, the Dutch replaced the English. The Dutch West Indies Society was founded in 1621, providing shelter to many whose coffee and sugar cane plantations slowly flourished in the country. From 1796 to 1802, then from 1804 to 1816, it came under British rule and then became a Dutch military colony under the name of Dutch Guyana. Dutch planters brought many African slaves to their riverside coffee, cocoa, sugar cane and cotton plantations. Farmers regularly mistreated their slaves, so many of them escaped the plantations. With the help of the Indians, they lived in the rainforest, created a unique culture, and successfully defended their secession. Their collective name is "maroons" (marunok), Dutch "bosnegers" (literally "bush nigger"). These runaway slaves occasionally attacked the plantations to obtain new members, women, weapons, food, equipment. The attacks often ended in the death of the planter and his family. A number of failed campaigns were launched against them, and in the 19th century, European authorities concluded several peace treaties guaranteeing their sovereignty and trade rights. In Suriname, the Dutch banned slavery in 1863, but the former slaves were not fully liberated until 1873, after a ten-year transition period during which they continued to work on the plantations for a minimum wage and without punishing their torture. When they were finally completely free, a large number of slaves left the plantations where they had lived for generations and moved to the city of Paramaribo. As a plantation colony, Suriname was heavily dependent on labor, which then became scarce. Therefore, with the consent of the British, the Dutch brought contract workers from the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and India. In addition, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, small numbers of immigrants came from China and the Middle East, mostly men. Although Suriname’s population has remained relatively small, due to its history, its population has one of the most diverse ethnic origins in the world, as well as the most diverse, diverse cultural traditions. World War II

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