Syria

Article

January 27, 2022

Syria (Arabic سوريا - Sūriyā or سورية - Sūriya, pronounced Suryia, formerly known as الشام - aš-Šām - as-Sám) is a country almost twice the size of Hungary in South-West Asia in the Middle East. Muslim Arab state with significant Christian religious and Kurdish, Armenian and Assyrian national minorities. The wider Syrian region, which has always had a predominantly Semitic population, including the territory of Phenicia and Palestine, has long witnessed human settlement and, through its position, has been a crossroads of important trade routes and cultures and empires throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. . The relatively quiet period of its history was about 400 years in the Ottoman Empire from 1517 to 1918, but in the 20th century, the Syrian Arab state, which became independent in 1946, became a major player in the ongoing crisis in the Middle East. The country has been experiencing a civil war since the Arab Spring in 2011.

Geography

Location, boundaries

Syria lies in the Middle East between 35 ° and 43 ° longitude in the eastern hemisphere and 32 ° and 38 ° latitude in the northern hemisphere. It covers an area of ​​185,180 square kilometers, making it in the middle of the country in terms of size. The length of the state border is about 2253 kilometers, of which 193 kilometers are beaches. The maximum width of the state in the west-east direction is approx. 830 kilometers and in the north-south direction approx. 740 kilometers. West of Lebanon and the Mediterranean, north of Turkey (a short north-eastern section of the Tiger is the border between the two states), east of Iraq and south of Iraq with Jordan and south-west of Syria, the Syrian Golan Heights since 1967 borders with occupying Israel. In the past, there was a border dispute with Turkey over the Antakya-based province of Hatay, but this is now over - it is true that official Syrian maps mark both the former and the current border.

Terrain

The fertile sand dunes, interrupted by only a few coastal cliffs, are separated by the north-south Alavita Mountains (mainly Nusajrijja or Ansarya Mountains in Arabic) and the continuation of the Lebanese-Israeli border in Antilon. from the interior of the country. Between the Nusajrijja and Zavija Mountains lies the Syrian section of the Syrian-Jordan Trench, which is the boundary line between the Eurasian and Arabic Tablets. It is meandered by the Orontes, whose valley is also fertile, similar to the western slopes of the Alavita Mountains, whose highest peak, Jabal Nabi Jun, is 1575 meters, exposed to wet air currents from the sea. Between Antiliban and the Alavita Mountains, there is a strait near the town of Homs, a popular trade route for thousands of years - the motorway and railway line to Tripoli, Lebanon, still runs here. In Antilibanon rises Syria’s largest peaks, including the country’s highest point, Jabal as-Sajh (Sheikh Mountain, under Israeli occupation, Hebrew named Har Hermon). In the south-western part of the country is the volcanic Haurán Highlands, which is one of the most fertile areas in the country due to rainfall from the Mediterranean. The Hauran begins a volcanic field called Harrat as-Sam, which also extends into Jordan and Saudi Arabia; part of it at its highest point is the 1803-meter Druze Mountains (Jabal ad-Duruz), home to the Syrian Druze sect. The eastern half of the country is dominated by an extensive plateau, am

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