Sculpture

Article

May 21, 2022

Sculpture (Greek for sculpture) is one of the best-known, traditional branches of fine art. Its products, the sculptures, are works of art made of solid materials with a full three-dimensional spatial extent (“walkable”).

Transitional works

Typically temporary reliefs approaching the two-dimensional representation of painting are reliefs (reliefs) that stand out only partially from the base: fits into the plane (mostly only the set of lines engraved in it is the flat relief; a half-relief slightly protruding from the base plane towards the spatiality; works that protrude more than half the height of the figures are commonly (without markers) reliefs; The high relief appears as a nearly three-dimensional, plastic, almost independent sculpture. columns, caryatids, gargoyles, etc.The transitional form leading to goldsmithing (goldsmithing) is medal art (coinage). It can only be related by name, but sound and light sculpture do not fall into this category.

Formatting

According to the way it is formed, the sculpture can be: carved, you are cast Sculptures (sculptures) made of plastic materials (clay, wax, plasticine, etc.) have traditionally been distinguished from sculptures carved from hard stone, the latter being referred to as sculptura of Latin origin (originally Bildhauerei in German). its meaning is blurred.

Traditional materials of sculptures

hard stone (carved sculptures): sandstone limestone marble basalt granite alabaster jade plastics (patterned sculptures): clay wax marzipan of vegetable and animal origin (carved sculptures) ivory various horns and sculpted sculptures: porcelain terracotta pyrogranite metals (cast sculptures): iron copper bronze silver gold building cladding (cladding ornaments) stucco paper

Contemporary materials

Any organic or inorganic material, industrial product. environment (nature) plastics and other synthetic materials textiles metals aluminum mercury wire glass sand water, ice, snow balloon liquid crystal frozen blood, dead animals lost and found

History

The first surviving sculptures in prehistoric times were patterned or carved from clay, stone or ivory. It has been suggested that these may have been cult objects, probably fertility symbols. They also attribute a cult role to ancient reliefs, as well as rock drawings, rock and cave paintings leading to painting. The first sacred statues were erected in the Neolithic on the altars of the places of worship. The first high-quality sculptures, formed with a serious artistic need and taste, as well as an established tradition, are among the relics of the river valley civilizations (Mesopotamia and Egypt). In Egypt, reliefs have taken on a greater role, with most of the stand-alone sculptures being small sculptures. The main function of classical Greek sculpture was to decorate buildings. In Europe, the Greeks formulated the first proportions (Polycleitos) that fixed the theoretical methods of composing and typified the settings that help the harmonious balance of movements. Hellenistic art has moved away from the classical order; the themes of the works became more and more naturalistic portraits, life pictures, frivolous and grotesque scenes. Roman sculpture assimilated the traditions of Greek and Etruscan art. In general, both ancient and thus Roman sculptures were usually painted in multicolor; modern sculptures are mostly monochrome in nature and if they are not, they are often the result of no painting. Since the Middle Ages, wooden sculptures (formerly) have been used the most