According to the traditional definition, a map is a top view representation of the surface of the Earth or another celestial body, or of natural and social objects and phenomena related to the surface, projected onto a plane according to defined mathematical rules or geometric laws, scaled down, generalized and presented with a specific graphic symbol system.
In a more modern approach, it can be called a scaled and ordered model of spatial aspects.
In another wording, interpreted more narrowly for the Earth: a map is a proportionally reduced, top view, i.e. like a floor plan, image of the earth's surface, or a part of it, which faithfully depicts the terrain. (Miklós Halász: Terrain and map knowledge, 1987)
Graphical representation methods that indicate spatial characteristics in a non-map form are called map-like representations. These include panoramic maps, bird's-eye and satellite images, 3D maps, sections, block sections, perspectives, etc.
Cartography, also known as cartography, deals with the theory and practice of making maps.
Parts of the map
Maps are made up of many different parts.
Map sheet The entire area of the map. Map mirror The part of the map covered by the map or non-map parts (legends, other textual information). Cut out The part(s) of the map mirror that is actually filled with the map. Map frame The boundary line of the map mirror, which can consist of one, two or more lines. In the case of several lines, the part between the outer and inner frame lines is the frame field, which can contain, for example, the search network and degree network, as well as other information (for example, the exit directions of roads, etc.). Address, license plate number
Proportion, measure of proportion
Legend The legend contains the most important signs of the map key and their brief explanation to facilitate map reading. The map symbols are presented in strict order, grouped and in a specific order. The content of the legend depends on the type of map, its purpose, the available space and the level of map knowledge of the target audience. Degree network or search network
North sign The arrow indicating the north direction on the edge of the map. The frame lines of the maps (the edges of the page in the case of a running mirror) usually coincide with the direction of the main landscapes, and the upper edge of the map is the north direction (the map is "north facing"). from a map.
The north sign on maps usually shows the magnetic north direction, on topographic sections the deviation (declination) of the geographical (astronomical) and magnetic north direction is also indicated. shows the cut-out boundaries of each section.Colophon: a note on the edge of the map containing information about the editing and publication of the map
Author and publisher of the map
Date of end of data collection and/or release of map
Land surveying base map The land surveying or cadastral map is a map containing natural and artificial landmarks related to real estate registration and real estate taxation, as well as the exact boundaries of countries, settlements, and parcels of land in a scale of 1:500-1:4000.
Geological map The geological map shows the formations of the earth's surface, or geologically significant, buried formations located below the surface