Turkey

Article

January 27, 2022

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, IPA: / tyɾkije dʒumhuɾijeti /), which covers a small part of Europe and a large part of western Asia. Located between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Anatolian Peninsula is the country's main territory. It is bordered on the north by Georgia and Armenia, on the east by Iran and, to a lesser extent, Nahiceva on Azerbaijan, on the south by Iraq and Syria, and on the west by the Aegean islands of Greece and Bulgaria. Turkey's culture is very diverse due to the country's special location and history in Europe and Asia, combining Eastern and Western traditions. Due to its geographical location, the country is an important strategic point both politically and economically. Turkey is a democratic, secular country that defines itself as a nation-state according to its constitution, but there are also other minorities living in the country. Republic since October 29, 1923. The foundations of his political system were strengthened under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the 1920s and 1930s, after the break-up of the Ottoman Empire and the First World War.

Origin of your name

The Turkish adjective / noun on which the word Turkey is based is probably derived from the Turkic word (8th century AD) of the Göktürk or köktürk (“Turkish roots”) ethnic group, by which they called themselves. The word may have been translated into Hungarian around the Tartar invasion, and then the sound became more open. The word Turk was further inherited from the Turkish language in Turkish form. The old Turkish word means “strong”. The composition of Türkiye denoting Turkey -iye ragja is of Arabic origin; means “owner” or “related to something”. It was transferred to most languages ​​from the medieval Latin figure of Turchia, i. s. Around 1369. The name Turkey (Türkiye) was first officially enshrined in the first Turkish constitution of 1921. After the proclamation of the republic, it was also ratified in the 1924 constitution.

Geography

Landscape units

The country is divided into different regions according to different perspectives by European and Turkish geographers. The European approach divides the country into the following units: The coasts of western Anatolia and the Marmara Sea Pontus Mountains Anatolian Plateau Toros Mountains Eastern Anatolia (Armenian Highlands) Southeastern AnatoliaThe Turkish geographers distinguish seven main geographical regions, which are divided into regions.

Terrain

Turkey is located in western Asia. The Asia Minor Peninsula consists of a central plateau and narrow coastal plains, bordered by the Pontus Range in the north and the Toros Range in the south. To the east is a mountain range, where the Euphrates, the Tigris and the Araks rivers originate, here lies Lake Van and Mount Ararat with the highest point in Turkey (5166 m). 80% of the country is located above 500 meters above sea level, has a coastline of 8,372 km, 15 islands within its borders and two straits, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. Due to the geological features of Anatolia, strong earthquakes also occur in Turkey.

Hydrography

The longest rivers in Turkey are the Euphrates (almost half the length of the river, 1263 km in Turkey), Kızılırmak (1151 km), Sakarya (824 km) and Murat (722 km). There are about 50 larger and 200 smaller lakes in Anatolia (9423 km² in total), the largest of which is Lake Van. The other lake worth mentioning is Lake Tuz, which literally means “salt lake”, the size of which varies depending on the amount of precipitation that falls, the edge of which is covered with deposited salt.

Climate

Climate of the regions of Turkey

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