Natural science


July 5, 2022

Natural science is the collective name for disciplines dealing with the study of phenomena and objects of animate and inanimate nature. Natural science includes: physics, chemistry, biology, geography, geology, meteorology, astronomy, medicine, agricultural science, genetics.


In ancient times, astronomy was the first natural science that developed in Mesopotamia along religious and social needs. It was a descriptive, systematizing science without exact laws. Due to the development of technology, we can place the beginnings of engineering and architecture in this age. According to our knowledge, the ancient Greeks created the first exact laws. They called the still unified natural science physics from the Greek word nature (φύσις), which developed closely intertwined with philosophy. The names of Archimedes and Aristotle are worth mentioning, the latter summed up ancient Greek physics. In the Middle Ages, natural science was defined by the teachings of Aristotle, alongside alchemy and astrology, which had a related but non-scientific approach, and flourished. However, the former had an important role in the development of the methods of chemistry, the first excellent companion science from physics.

Repository of natural sciences

Mathematics Philosophy, logic Cultivation of the natural sciences is impossible without knowledge of these areas. These tools - like a kind of framework - bring together the individual natural sciences and their results. Mathematics describes nature. Philosophy deals with questions of principle and the path of knowledge, within which logic presents the process of correct thinking. Neither mathematics nor philosophy can be defined as auxiliary sciences, because they are independent sciences. If they have to be categorized, mathematics is usually classified as a natural science and philosophy as a social science.

Classification of natural sciences

Basic Sciences

Physics Chemistry Biology Earth science Astronomy

Applied natural sciences

Engineering or Technical Sciences Agricultural science Medicine


Károly Simonyi: The cultural history of physics Hungarians in the history of natural science and technology. Biographical lexicon from A to Z. Chief editor Ferenc Nagy. Editorial Board Szaniszló Bérczi, András Füzeséri, Csongor Kiss, Miklós Lambrecht, Dénes Nagy, Ferenc Nagy, László Sipka. Edited by Pál Garamvári, István Gazda, György Lajtha, Zsigmond P. Károlyi, Frigyes Raum, Ervin Szűcs, Ferenc Végh. The bibliography was compiled by István Gazda and Csongor Kiss. Budapest: National Technical Information Center and Library, 1992 Bibliographies [Publications of the Hungarian Institute of the History of Science: ] [Website of the Hungarian Institute of the History of Science:]

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