Textile industry

Article

August 14, 2022

The textile industry is one of the oldest industrial sectors with the greatest traditions. The collective name of the specialist areas that produce yarns and/or sheet-like products from fibrous materials using various processes - in the technical term: textiles. In this way, the textile industry includes yarn and thread production, the tissues, knitted fabrics and knitted goods, the production of products produced by other fabric-forming processes (e.g. lace-making, braiding, felt-making, stapling, non-woven fabric production, sewing looping), their coloring and finishing, as well as the production of non-clothing ready-made textile products (e.g. textile bags, ropes, cords, knotted nets, etc.). The clothing industry deals with the further processing of the products of the textile industry for the purpose of the clothing industry. The name "textile" comes from the Latin word textus, one of the meanings of which (according to Finály's dictionary) is: "fabric, warp".

History

The history of the production of textile products can be traced back to prehistoric times, but we do not have accurate data on this. The literature i. e. He mentions a textile product from around 25,000, a fabric-like piece made of fibers, as the oldest such find found in Europe. I. e. We also know about textile fragments created between 11,000 and 8,000. From the bed of Lake Zurich, an i. e. A textile that could have been made 5-6 thousand years ago has been found, which in terms of structure is the same as the fabrics that are still made today. In 1988, during an excavation at the upper course of the Tigris, a tool handle made of deer antler was found, on which flax fibers were recognized and its age was 9,000 years. It was established that these threads may originally have originated from some very airy, gauze-like woven cloth.

Raw Materials

It is likely that the starting materials of the first textile products were plant fibers. Since ancient times in India, cotton seed (cotton) and jute husks, in Africa kenaf, in China ramie, in the Philippines manila hemp, in Mexico agave have provided the fibers for spinning, the ancient peoples of Europe and the Mediterranean worked under up. Some Asian peoples started processing wool into yarn or felt as early as the Neolithic Age (5000-2000 BC). The first remnants of wool fabric from Asia Minor, the i. e. They come from the 7th century. We know for sure that silk comes from China and came to the Romans via Asia, on the famous Silk Road.

Spinning

Spinning is the traditional and oldest operation of yarn production, it was already known in the Stone Age (5000-2000 BC). With this process, the short fiber materials are sorted, parallelized, and then combined by twisting. This is how the yarn is formed. The component of the yarn is therefore the thread. Thread is produced by twisting two or more yarns together.

Weaving

Weaving may have preceded spinning by thousands of years, because naturally occurring strands and tendrils are suitable for the production of fabric-like products even in their original form. The fabric basically consists of two intersecting yarn systems; the technical language refers to the longitudinal yarns as warp yarns, and the transverse yarns perpendicular to it as weft yarns. Some researchers assume that the first textiles were not even used for clothing, but that the ancient people could have made the walls of their huts from fabrics made of plant fibers similar to mats or from materials with a similar structure (e.g. sprang), or