August 14, 2022

Science is an activity aimed at learning about the world around us and a thought system of verified (tested or proven) knowledge acquired during this activity. The activity must be repeatable by anyone and ultimately lead to the same result in order for the result to be called a scientific result. Higher education contributes to the development of universal science (among other things) through the research and creative art work carried out in its institutions, the creation of new scientific results and works, the adoption and transmission of modern knowledge, and the preparation of outstanding talents at a scientific level. natural sciences, humanities and social sciences, as well as their applied fields (e.g. technical sciences, agricultural sciences, medical sciences) which are divided into disciplines. Science e.g.: history, although history cannot be repeated, but it is possible to learn about it based on historical sources. This is essentially the same as with science in general. The world cannot be repeated, but it can be known. Scientific knowledge is constantly being expanded with new knowledge, supplementing our knowledge and clarifying outdated, inaccurate elements of knowledge.

Science as cognitive activity

In the old sense, all forms of cognitive activities were called science, philosophy, or philosophy, including the narrower arts (in addition to the disciplines in today's sense), worldview thinking, religious and mythological doctrines, professional experiences, technical knowledge, observations, and reflections. Among others, reason, emotion, intuition, meditation and prayer were considered ways of knowing. In today's use of the term, science is interpreted much more narrowly than this. As an activity, it means only those forms of cognition that are carried out in a specific way based on the scientific method. There are different schools of philosophy of science and positions on the nature of scientific methodology. In fact, there are now as many schools of philosophy of science as there are original thinkers who have even begun to deal with this question. However, the vast majority of these schools of philosophy of science had almost no influence on the actual scientific methodology. In each discipline, different positions became dominant according to their specific needs. The scientific methodology actually applied in most empirical sciences, especially in the field of exact natural sciences, is almost exclusively based on the Cartesian approach (ideas marked by the name of René Descartes (1596-1650)), and then in the course of the 20th century, the Popperian theory of science (Karl Popper (1902-1994 ) school marked with his name) had a more significant impact. The scientific theoretical debates that are still going on intensively today about the scientific method have essentially remained within the confines of the philosophy of science.

The structure of scientific revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (SSR), Kuhn's major work, originally appeared as an article in the International Encyclopedia of Science. In his book, he showed that science does not advance with the linear accumulation of new knowledge, but goes through periodical revolutions, which he also called "paradigm shifts" - during which the scientific interest in a certain area suddenly changes. Science can generally be divided into three different stages. The first is conjecture, which lacks the central paradigm. This is followed by "ordinary" science, when scientists try to broaden the central paradigm with a "puzzle". Driven by the paradigm