Chemical operations


July 5, 2022

The basic steps in the processes of the chemical industry are called chemical operations. A thorough knowledge of these is part of the science of chemical engineering. The English equivalent of the concept, unit operations, came into use at the beginning of the last century, when in 1923, in a book, its authors explained that the processes of the chemical industry can be broken down into basic steps that are based on the same physical laws and that have general validity in chemical processes . These can be divided into five classes: Chemical industry material handling: Transport of liquid materials (Hydrodynamics), filtration and fluidization of suspensions (i.e. also the so-called fluidized mixture of pulverized, pulverized materials made into a liquid with gas) Caloric operations, heat transfer, including condensation and evaporation, Material transfer including gas absorption, distillation, extraction, adsorption and drying, Thermodynamic operations, gas liquefaction and freezing and finally Mechanical material handling, etc. Transport of solid materials, breaking, shredding, grading and sieving, or sieving. According to another classification, there are: Combination (mixing) Separation (distillation) and Reaction (chemical reaction) All of these are widely used by the chemical industry for plant planning, their construction and plant development. The main source of the literary material is a book first published in 1956, in which the authors discuss the 28 most important chemical operations in its four main parts and which is still widely used for chemical engineering education.