Venezuela (full name: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela) is a country in South America. When European explorers first spotted the canals separating the waterfront houses of the natives in 1499, Venice came to mind, so the area was called Little Venice, or Venezuela. (The diminutive form of Venecia in Spanish).
It is located in the northern part of South America. Its natural border is the coast of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, about 2,800 km long.
It has a 2,200 km long border section with Brazil to the south; to the east is the border with the Republic of Guyana 743 km long, to the west Colombia is its neighbor, a stretch of about 2050 km.
It is bordered on the north by the coast (in the Caribbean Sea), on the east by Guyana, on the south by Brazil and on the west by Colombia.
In the northern part, the Andean ranges rise. The highest point in the country is Pico Bolívar (4978 m). Its coastal chain is divided into two parts by the Gulf of Barcelona: the Cumanai Mountains to the east and the Caribbean Mountains to the west. There are numerous pools in the Caribbean, the largest of which is the Valencia Basin. To the north of the Andes, on the coast, lies the lagoon region of the Maracaibo Basin, in the Gulf of Maracaibo.
The southern part is made up of 2,000-meter mountains in the highlands of Guyana. The highlands are a region east of Orinoco, the northern part is a hilly region, in the middle a undulating mountain range, to the south are high mountains.
The Orinoco Plain or the Orinoco Basin is wedged between the Andes and the Guyana Highlands.
Margarita is the largest of the islands in the Caribbean in front of the coastline.
The largest catchment area is the Orinoco (2900 km). Other major rivers are the Río Negro (2253 m), the Caroni and the Apure.
Highest waterfall on Earth: Angel Waterfall (Guyana Mountains) on the Churun River, 979 m.
Largest lakes: Maracaibo Lagoon (12,950 km²), Lake Valencia (325 km²).
Climatic conditions in the country:
equators - in the mountains of Guyana
tropical savannah - next to the Orinoco
savannah - in the mountain basins
subtropicalAverage annual temperature: 19-27 ° C, mainly due to tszf. height is affected.
Flora and Fauna
Natural World Heritage
Canaima National Park
People have lived in the territory of present-day Venezuela for at least 15,000 years. Evidence of this is the tools and arrowheads excavated from the late Pleistocene.
In the 16th century, when the Spanish colonization of Venezuela began, the indigenous peoples were systematically murdered. Indian tribal chiefs (kittens) tried to resist the Spanish invasion, but were eventually defeated and enslaved (when the Spaniards realized that the hard work the Indians could not perform began to buy African black slaves and take them to the colonies).
The settlement of Venezuela began in 1522. It was then that the city of Coro, the first permanent South American settlement in the Spanish Empire in what is now the Cumana region, was founded. This part of eastern Venezuela was divided into New Andalusia. Most of present-day Venezuela became part of the New Kingdom of New Granada in the early 18th century. In 1776 the independent headquarters were set up. After a series of failed uprisings, Venezuela proclaimed its independence on July 5, 1811, under the leadership of Francisco de Miranda, who was a participant in the French Revolution and then became Marshal of Venezuela. Caracas was destroyed by an earthquake in 1812, and Venezuelan landowners revolted against the new state. All this contributed to the fall of the first republic of Venezuela. The second republic of Venezuela was proclaimed on August 7, 1813. After a few months, it will come together