Weimar is a city in eastern Germany, in the province of Thuringia. Its Hungarian relevance is significant, as Ferenc Liszt lived and worked in the city several times and the painter Sándor Bortnyik also lived here for three years.
Coat of arms
The background of the coat of arms of the city is golden. On the shield are several red hearts and a black perching lion, the coat of arms of the Counts of Orlamünde. Between 1938 and 1945, a coat of arms with four eagles was used. The components of today's coat of arms were determined in 1975.
Weimar is located on the Ilm-Saale board, 208 meters above sea level. To the south is the Thuringian Basin. Its highest point is Ettersberg, 478 meters high, located in the northwest corner of the city.
The history of Weimar begins in 899. His name has also been Wimares, Wimari and Wimar throughout history. Its meaning comes from the word Old German swamp.
Between 946 and 1346 it was the center of the county of Weimar. II. The castle is first mentioned in a document dated 3 June 975 by the German-Roman emperor Otto. This is considered to be the first written record of the city. III. In 984, the army of the German-Roman emperor Otto besieged the II. The castle was protected by Count William, it was repeated in 1002, but Otto failed both times. In the winter of 1173–74 the castle burned down.
In 1250, the settlement around the castle was first mentioned. The castle church was built between 1245 and 1249 and consecrated in 1254 in honor of St. Peter. On September 16, 1284, he received the Order of the German Knights under the Bishop of Mainz. In 1307 the Order of the Knights opened the first school, and from 1383 it also operated a hospital.1247 The Ludowingers became extinct. The city then became embroiled in the Thuringian-Hessen War of Succession and eventually became part of Thuringia.
In 1410 it was granted city rights. It burned down in 1424, so the Count of the House of Wettin granted him tax concessions.
In 1552, Prince John Frederick I made the town the capital of the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar, which was the seat of the province until 1918.
The first onion fair was held on October 4, 1653.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the city was famous for its literature. The Weimar Classics Friedrich Schiller, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe all lived in the city.
In 1816, the duchy, the first of the German states, received a constitution. The city flourished under Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna and her son Alexander. In 1842, Ferenc Liszt was also invited to their castle. In 1848, Richard Wagner played music there. In 1860, Sándor Károly founded the Weimar School of Painting. Arnold Böcklin, Franz Lenbach and Reinhold Begas, among others, studied here. In 1885, the Friends of Singers Society was formed.
Carl Alexander’s son, Wilhelm Ernst, also supported the culture. He turned the painting school into a college, and in 1905 he founded the Weimar Training School. And in 1907 the School of Art and Industry.
In 1846 the railway between Halle and Erfurt was built. In 1876, the section between the Jena and Gera was completed. In 1887 the Ilmtalbahn was handed over to Bad Berka.
In 1919, the National Assembly was held in the city theater, which proclaimed the Weimar Republic. This state existed until 1933, when the Nazis came to power. On May 1, 1920, it became the seat of Thuringia again.
Politically, Weimar was a center of conservatism and nationalism between the world wars. In 1926, the NSDAP held its second party congress here after the 1925 re-establishment. On July 4, the Hitler Jugend was founded. In the eyes of the Nazis, the city was the center of German culture. Hitler has been here 40 times.
It is divided into twenty-one districts.
Weimar Train Station is one of the most important train stations in Thuringia. Several ICs pass through the city. The night of Zurich-Frankfurt passes through the city