XXIII.

Article

December 7, 2021

St. XXIII. John (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Sotto il Monte, 25 November 1881 - Rome, 3 June 1963) Roman Pope 1958-1963, 261st successor of St. Peter. He came from a poor tenant family, and he never forgot that: at the end of his life, he was grateful in his spiritual testament that he could die in poverty. Because of his simplicity, directness, and sincere love for humanity, he was one of the most popular popes of all time. Addresses of appreciation were given on the lips of the believing people. Pilgrims flocked to him and marched into the Panthéon as saints of ordinary people. the Vatican Council, the 21st Universal Council of the Roman Catholic Church, whose task was to reform the church and to settle its relations with the other Christian denominations and the unbelieving world. This opened a new era in the history of the Catholic Church. II. It was inaugurated by Pope John Paul on September 3, 2000, and the day of remembrance is celebrated on October 11 (the anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council) by the Catholic Church. Inauguration of Saint on April 27, 2014, the Sunday of Divine Mercy, in the II. It happened with Pope John Paul.

Life

As a priest

He was born near Bergamo as the fourth child of his impoverished noble family of thirteen children. Priest began his studies in Bergamo with the financial support of his uncle and then continued in Rome, where he also obtained a doctorate in theology. He was ordained a priest on August 19, 1904. He was appointed private secretary to the bishop of Bergamo, while also entrusting him with a pastoral job: dealing with youth. Meanwhile, as a professor, he taught church history, faith defense, and the history of early Christian literature at the diocesan seminary, as well as researching the past of religious life in the area. He also began to deal with social issues, the apostolate of the laity. During World War I, he first worked in nursing and was later appointed pastor of Bergamo's military hospitals. In 1918, he became the spiritual leader of the little priests who returned home from the front. after the war he was the director of the pastors of the universities. In 1921, XV. Pope Benedict assigned him to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome, where his main task was to organize financial support for missions. In the 1924/25 academic year, he taught patrology (history of early Christian literature) at the Pontifical Lateran University.

As a diplomatic bishop and patriarch of Venice

XI. Pope Pius appointed him an apostolic visitor to Bulgaria in 1925 and elevated him to the rank of bishop with honorary archbishopric. Roncalli then chose his episcopal slogan: Obedientia et pax (obedience and peace). In 1934 he became papal delegate of Greece and Turkey. In these places he established good relations with many Orthodox high priests. He was appointed a nuncio to Paris in 1944. It was (also) a rather difficult "terrain" at the time. He rescued many Jews, for example by issuing visas and passing on information about the Holocaust, and when he went to France towards the end of the war, he also helped the Germans captured by the French army. . He received the cardinal's hat in 1953 and was appointed Patriarch of Venice the same year.

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