August 13, 2022

The Middle Ages in European history lasted from the 5th century to the 15th century AD. The Middle Ages began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and continued as Europe entered the Age of Renewal and Age of Exploration. The history of the Western world is traditionally divided into three time periods, namely the Ancient Ages, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Age. In other words, the Middle Ages is a period of transition from the Ancient Ages to the Modern Age. The Middle Ages is still further divided into three time periods, namely the Early Middle Ages, the Peak Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages. The decline in population, counterurbanization, invasions, and displacement of tribes, which had occurred since the Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale population movements of the Age of Migration also included the displacement of Germanic tribes who established new kingdoms in the former territory of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—the former territory of the Byzantine Empire—were ruled by the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after being conquered by Muhammad's successors. Although the Early Middle Ages saw fundamental changes in social and political order, the influence of the Ancients had not completely disappeared. The still large Byzantine Empire survived in eastern Europe. The Byzantine Empire's code of law, the Corpus Iuris Civilis or the "Book of Justinian's Code", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070, and later attracted admiration from all walks of life throughout the Middle Ages. Most of the existing kingdoms in western Europe instituted the few remaining Roman institutions. The monasteries were founded as the incessant efforts to Christianize the adherents of ancestral beliefs in Europe. The Franks, under the leadership of the Carolingian kings, founded the Carolingian Empire in the late 8th and early 9th centuries. Although it succeeded in controlling most of the mainland of Western Europe, the Carolingian Empire was ultimately devastated by civil wars at home and invasions from abroad, namely Viking attacks from the north, Magyar attacks from the east, and Saracen attacks from the north. south direction. At the height of the Middle Ages, which began after 1000 AD, the population of Europe increased rapidly thanks to the emergence of innovations in technology and agriculture that made commerce possible. The surge in European population was also caused by climate change during the Medieval Warm Temperature period which allowed for increased crop yields. There were two social orders that were applied at the Peak of the Middle Ages, namely Manorialism and Feudalism. Manorialism is controlling common people to become settlers in villages, with the obligation to pay land rent and work for the nobility; while feudalism was a political structure that required knights and lower class aristocrats to go to war to defend their lord in exchange for the award of leases on land and fiefs (English: manor). The Crusades, which were first called for in 1095, were a military attempt by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. Kings became heads of centralized nation states. This system of leadership reduces crime and violence, but makes the goal of a unified Christian world even more difficult to realize. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that prioritized the harmony between faith and reason, and was also marked by the establishment of universities. Thomas Aquinas' theology, Giotto's paintings, Dante and Chaucer's poems, Marco Polo's travels, and Gothic-style cathedrals such as Chartres Cathedral, are just a few of the examples.