Abu al-Mafakhir from Banten
Sultan Abdulmafakhir Mahmud Abdulkadir or known as Pangeran Ratu or Sultan Agung was the 4th king of the Sultanate of Banten who reigned from 1596 to 1651. He was the son of Sultan Maulana Muhammad who became the first king on the island of Java to use the title "Sultan". Sultan Abdulmafakhir died on March 10, 1651 and was buried in the Banten Walnut Cemetery.
Sultan Maulana Muhammad died in 1596 in Palembang. Then on June 23, 1596, his son who was only five months old was appointed the 4th king of Banten, so that Mangkubumi Jayanegara was appointed as his guardian to run the wheels of government. In 1602, Mangkubumi Jayanegara died, his position was replaced by his younger brother. However, 17 November 1602 he was dismissed for misbehavior. Worried that there would be division and jealousy, the government was decided not to be held by Mangkubumi, but directly by the Sultan's mother, Nyimas Ratu Ayu Wanagiri. From March 8, 1608 to March 26, 1609, there was a civil war between the royal families. Through the efforts of Prince Jayakarta, the war could finally be stopped and a peace treaty could be mutually agreed. Banten was safe again, then Prince Arya Ranamanggala was appointed as the new Mangkubumi as well as the guardian of Sultan Muda. To bring order to the state's affairs, Ranamangga punishes the Prince or Penggawa who commits fraud. January 1624, Mangkubumi Prince Arya Ranamanggala resigned from his position due to illness. At that time Abdulmafakhir was quite mature, so that the power over the Sultanate of Banten was fully held by Sultan Abdulmafakhir. Two years later, on May 13, 1626, Prince Arya Ranamanggala died.
Conflict with VOC
The VOC's desire to monopolize the pepper trade in Banten was a source of conflict between Banten and the VOC, because Sultan Abdulmufakhir flatly rejected the VOC's will to impose a trade monopoly. With the strengthening of the VOC's position in Batavia since 1619, the conflict between the two sides escalated. The VOC imposed a blockade on the trading port of Banten by banning and intercepting junks from China and boats from Maluku that were going to trade to the port of Banten. This blockade caused the port of Banten to become undeveloped, which prompted the people of Banten to provoke the VOC. This action was retaliated by the VOC by conducting expeditions to Tanam, Anyer, and Lampung. Even the city of Banten itself was blockaded many times. This situation led to war between Banten and the VOC in November 1633. Six years later, the two sides signed a peace treaty although for the next two decades their relations remained strained.
During his reign, Sultan Abdulmafakhir had begun intensive diplomatic relations with other powers that existed at that time, including the King of England, James I in 1605 and in 1629 to Charles I. In addition, he also sent several court officials to Mecca. in 1633. This envoy was led by Labe Panji, Tisnajaya and Wangsaraja. Prince Pekik also participated in this group as his father's representative, while performing the pilgrimage.
Awarding the title of Sultan
In 1636 the Sharif of Mecca with the authorization of the Ottoman Empire gave the approval of the title Sultan to Abdulmafakhir and his crown prince, Abu al-Ma'ali Ahmad, which made him the first King of Islam in the archipelago to officially use the title Sultan.
Official website Archived 2017-04-29 at Wayback Machine. Sultanate of Banten