Africa

Article

November 30, 2021

Africa is the second largest continent in the world and the second most populous after Asia. With an area of ​​30,224,050 km² including adjacent islands, Africa covers 20.3% of the total land area of ​​the Earth. With 800 million people in 54 countries, the continent is home to one-seventh of the world's population. With population 1.3 billion people as of 2018, the continent accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. This continent includes Madagascar and various islands. The continent also contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two countries with limited or no independent de facto recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with most and many countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest of all continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4. Algeria is the largest country in Africa by area, and Nigeria is the country with the largest population. Africa, particularly central East Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the clade Hominidae (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors and later ones dating back about 7 million years, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster - The earliest Homo sapiens (modern humans), found in Ethiopia, about 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and includes many climatic regions; it is the only continent that stretches from the northern temperate zone to the southern temperate zone. Africa hosts a great diversity of human ethnicities, cultures, and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonized almost all of Africa; most countries in Africa emerged from the decolonization process in the 20th century. African countries cooperated through the formation of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa.

History

The word Africa comes from the Latin, Africa terra — "land of Afri" (plural of "Afer") — to denote the northern part of the continent, currently part of Tunisia, the seat of the Roman province of Africa. The origin of the word Afer is probably from the Phoenician, 'afar meaning dust; or of the Afridi tribe, who inhabited the northern part of the continent near Carthage; or from the Greek aphrike meaning without cold; or from the Latin aprica meaning bright. Africa is the earliest human habitation, from this continent humans later spread to other continents. Africa is the place where the evolutionary line of apes became different from that of protohumans seven million years ago. Africa was the only continent inhabited by human ancestors until about two million years ago when Homo erectus expanded out of Africa into Europe and Asia. More than 1.5 million years later, the populations of the three continents followed different evolutions so that they became distinct species. Those in Europe became Neanderthals, those in Asia remained Homo erectus, but those in Africa evolved into Homo sapiens.

Geography

Africa is the largest of the three continents in the Southern Hemisphere and the second largest after Asia of all continents. The area is approximately 30,244,050 km2 (11,677,240 sq mi2) including the surrounding islands, covers 20.3% of the total land area on earth and is inhabited by more than 800 million people, or about one-seventh of the human population on earth. Separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, Africa joins Asia at its northeastern end via the 130 km wide Suez Canal. Egypt's Sinai Peninsula is often considered geopolitically part of Africa. From the northernmost tip, Cape

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