What is the name of God?
August 12, 2022
Abu Ishaq al-Mu'tasim bin Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم ارون Abū Isḥāq al-Muʿtaṣim ibn Hārūn, 794 – 5 January 842) was Caliph of the Abbasids (833 - 842). He succeeded his relative al-Ma'mun. Ghilman (singular: ghulam) was introduced in the land of the caliphate during the time of al-Mu'tasim. Ghilman are slave warriors taken as children from conquered lands, in anticipation of the Ottoman system of devshirme. Ghilman, personally answerable only to the caliph, revolted during ar-Radi's time. Ghilman, together with the shakiriyah which had been introduced during al-Ma'mun's time, had disturbed the regular Arab soldiers of the caliphate army. The Turkic and Armenian Ghilmans angered the citizens of Baghdad, provoking riots in 836. The capital was moved to the new city of Samarrah later that year, and remained there until 892 when al-Mu'tamid returned to Baghdad. The Tahiriah Sultanate, which had been prominent during al-Ma'mun's time after the military province of Khurasan was recognized by Tahir bin Husayn, continued to develop power. They received the governorates of Samarqand, Farghana, and Herat. Unlike most provinces during the Abbasid Caliphate, which were closely ruled by Baghdad and Samarrah, the provinces under Tahiriah control were freed from many tributary and blame functions. Tahiriah independence contributed greatly to the decline of Abbasid supremacy in the east. It was during the time of al-Mu'tasim that the decline in the Abbasid Caliphate began to manifest. al-Mu'tasim had to overcome the Khurramiyyah in the Tabriz area. Led by the Babak heresy, the Khurramiyyah were never completely conquered, although they gradually disappeared during the next caliphate. Even so, the caliphate is still strong in protecting its inhabitants. In the year 837, al-Mu'tasim Billah answered the call of a Muslim slave who asked for help because of being bullied and harassed by the Romans, her cloth was tied to nails so that when she stood up, some of her nakedness could be seen. The woman then shouted the name of the Caliph Al-Mu'tashim billah with the legendary lafadz: waa mu'tashimaah!. After receiving reports of this harassment, the Caliph sent tens of thousands of troops to storm the city of Amoria and crush all the infidels who were there (30,000 Roman soldiers were killed and another 30,000 were taken prisoner). Someone relates that the length of this army line did not break from the caliph's palace to the city of Amoria, because of the size of the army. After occupying the city, the caliph summoned the reporter to show him where the woman's house was, when he met her he said "O my sister, have I fulfilled your call for me?". And this female slave was freed by the caliph and the Romans who abused her were made slaves for the woman. The greatest Muslim mathematician al-Kindi was employed by al-Mu'tasim, and taught the caliph's son. al-Kindi had served in the Baitul Hikmah, or House of Wisdom. He continued to study Greek geometry and algebra under the caliphate. al-Mu'tasim Billah died in 842 and was succeeded by his son al-Watsiq. Notes: k. is the year of power Number, is the serial number of a person to become caliph. Names with capital letters represent the ruling caliph.