January 20, 2022

Algae are a group of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms (mixotrophs) that do not have organs with significant differences in function. Most are phototrophs, which obtain food with the help of photons (light), but there are also those who obtain nutrients through a combination of phototrophs with osmotrophs (obtaining nutrients by osmosis), myzotrophs (obtaining nutrients by sucking other cells), phagotrophs (obtaining nutrients by preying on particles) ). Algae are classified separately from plants because they do not have "organs" like those of plants (roots, stems, leaves, and so on). Because of this, algae was once classified as a thallus plant. Algae is a type of non-vascular plant that performs photosynthesis. Algae have chlorophyll a and have a simple reproductive system. Algae can be grouped into 2 parts, namely macro algae and micro algae. The term algae was once used for algae, but now it is not recommended because it can cause confusion with a number of other aquatic plants, such as Hydrilla. In a taxonomy that is widely supported by biologists, algae are no longer included in a separate division or class, but are separated according to the facts that emerge today. Thus algae is not a separate taxon group.

Groups of algae

In the old literature, algae always failed to enter into one group, either single-celled or multi-celled. One example is the separation of single-celled algae (eg Euglena into Protozoa) from multicellular algae (into Thallophyta). It was later fully realized that grouping as one clade was not possible for all algae, even after being separated based on their cell organization, because some single-celled algae are more closely related to certain multi-celled algae. Currently, green algae are included in a group (clade) closer to all photosynthetic plants (forming the clade Viridiplantae). Red algae are a separate group (Rhodophycophyta or Rhodophyceae); as well as blonde algae (Phaeophycophyta or Phaeophyceae) and golden algae (Chrysophyceae).

Prokaryotic algae

Blue-green algae are now included as bacteria and hence the name Cyanobacteria ("blue-green bacteria", formerly called Cyanophyceae, "blue-green algae") Thus, the term "algae" becomes invalid. Cyanobacteria have a prokaryotic cell structure like bacteria, but are able to carry out direct photosynthesis because they have chlorophyll. Previously, this algae along with bacteria entered the kingdom of Monera. However, in subsequent developments it was discovered that it had more bacterial characteristics so it was included in the true bacteria group (Eubacteria). In addition, several groups of organisms that were previously included as bacteria are now separated into a separate kingdom, Archaea.

Eukaryotic algae

Other types of algae have eukaryotic cell structures and are capable of photosynthesis, either with chlorophyll or with other pigments that aid in energy assimilation. In the most modern taxonomy, eukaryotic algae include the following phyla/divisio. It should be realized that the grouping of all eukaryotic algae as Protists is considered invalid because some algae (eg green algae and red algae) are more closely related to plants than other single-celled eukaryotes. Archaeplastida: Regnum Viridiplantae or Plantae (plants): Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae) Phylum Charophyta (green coral algae) Archaeplastida: Regnum incertae sedis Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae) Archaeplastida: Regnum incertae sedis Phylum Glaucophyta Superregnum Cabozoa: Regnum Rhizaria: Phylum Cercozoa Class Chlorarachnia Superregnum Cabozoa: Regnum Excavata: Phylum Euglenozoa Regnum Chromalveolata: Superphylum Chromista Phylum Heterokontophyta (at

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