Algeria

Article

May 22, 2022

Algeria or Algeria (Arabic: الجزائر, translit. al-jazā'ir‎, /al-jaza-ir/, Berber: , /Dzayer/ ), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria, is a country on the Mediterranean coast, North Africa. The name of this country which means archipelago (al-jazā'ir, in Arabic) probably refers to the 4 islands located close to the capital and center of government of this country, Algiers. Algeria is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes. With a population of over 37 million people, Algeria is the 34th most populous country on Earth. With an economy that relies on oil sources, the manufacturing sector has suffered from the Dutch disease. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is Africa's largest company. Algeria has the second largest army with the largest defense budget in Africa. Algeria has had a peaceful Nuclear Program since the 1990s. With a total area of ​​2,381,741 square kilometers, Algeria is the 10th largest country in the world and the largest in Africa, and in the Mediterranean. The country borders Tunisia to the northeast; Libya to the east; Morocco to the west; Western Sahara, Mauritania and Mali to the southwest; Niger to the southeast; and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Algeria is a member of the African Union, Arab League, OPEC, and the United Nations, and a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. The area that is now Algeria was once home to many ancient prehistoric cultures, including the Ateria and Kapsia cultures. The region is known to have had many empires and dynasties, including Berber Numidia, Carthage, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyad Arabs, Berber Fatimids, Berber Muwahidun, and finally the Ottoman Turks.

Etymology

The name of this country is derived from the name of the city, Algiers. The most common etymology links the city's name to al-Jazā'ir (الجزائر, "Islands"), a truncated form of the city's old name, Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna (جزائر , "Islands of the Mazghanna"), used by geographers medieval times, al-Idrisi. Another etymology traces this name to Ldzayer, the Maghrib and Berber Arabic for "Algeria" possibly related to King Ziri bin Manad of the Zirid dynasty and the pioneer city of Algiers.

History

Ancient history

In the Ain Hanech region (Saida Province), remnants of early hominid occupation (200,000 BC) have been found in North Africa. Tool makers, Neanderthals, produced hand axes in Levaloisian and Musteria (43,000 BC) styles, similar to those found in the Levant. The original Berber people of Algeria have been under foreign rule for more than 3000 years. The Phoenicians (1000 BC) and the Roman Republic (200 BC) were the most important, until the arrival of the Arabs in the 8th century. However, the flow of conquest was not entirely one-way; in medieval times the Fatimid Berbers, originally from Algeria, took over Egypt, though soon afterward left North Africa.

The reign of the Ottoman Turks

Algeria was conquered by the Ottoman Turks by Khair ad-Din and his brother Aruj who made its coast a base for corsairs; Their [privateering] peaked in Algiers in the 1600s, after the center of activity was moved to Tripoli in Libya. Under the pretext of ignoring their consuls, the French invaded Algiers in 1830; however, the intense resistance from figures such as Emir Abdelkader made for a slow conquest of Algeria, did not technically end until the early 1900s when the Tuaregs were last conquered.

French occupation

Meanwhile, however, France had made Algeria an integral part of its metropolis, a status that would end the fall of the Fourth Republic. Tens of thousands of settlers from France, Italy, Spain, and Malta moved across the Mediterranean to farm the Algerian coastal plains and occupy