Central Intelligence Agency


January 20, 2022

The Central Intelligence Agency (English: Central Intelligence Agency, CIA) is one of the intelligence agencies of the United States federal government. As an executive agency, the CIA is under the Director of National Intelligence. The CIA has three main activities, namely gathering information about foreign governments, companies, and individuals; analyze this information along with intelligence from U.S. intelligence agencies. others to produce national security intelligence assessments submitted to senior United States policymakers; and carrying out or supervising covert activities and some tactical operations by its own employees, members of the U.S. military, or other associates at the request of the President of the United States. For example, the CIA can exert foreign policy influence through its tactical divisions such as the Special Activities Division. The CIA's headquarters are located in Langley, Virginia, a few miles west of Washington, D.C. Its employees work at the U.S. embassy. and a number of other locations around the world. The CIA replaced the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) created in World War II to coordinate the covert espionage activities of the United States Armed Forces against the Axis powers. The National Security Act of 1947 formalized the existence of the CIA and "abolished the function of police or law enforcement at home and abroad". Much criticism has been leveled at the CIA for its security and counterintelligence failures, intelligence analysis failures, human rights issues, overseas navigation and disclosure of documents. , influencing public opinion and law enforcement, smuggling drugs, and lying to Congress. Others, such as Eastern bloc defector Ion Mihai Pacepa, recognized the CIA as "the best intelligence organization in the world by far," and argued that CIA activities were carried out with the utmost care and unthinkable by other intelligence agencies around the world.


The Central Intelligence Agency was created by Congress after the National Security Act of 1947 was passed by President Harry S. Truman. Its formation was inspired by the success of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II which was dissolved in October 1945 and its functions were transferred to the Department of Foreign Affairs and War. Eleven months earlier, in 1944, William J. Donovan, the founder of the OSS, had asked President Franklin D. Roosevelt to establish a new organization under the direct supervision of the President, "which would gather intelligence by both overt and clandestine means and at the same time would provide intelligence guidance, define national intelligence objectives, and link intelligence material collected by all government agencies." As planned, a strong and centralized civilian agency would be able to coordinate all intelligence services. He also said the agency would have the authority to carry out "subversive operations overseas," but had no "police or law enforcement functions, either at home or abroad."

Predecessors, 1946–1947

The Office of Strategic Services, the United States' first independent intelligence agency established for World War II, was dissolved after the war ended by President Harry S. Truman on September 20, 1945 through the passage of an Executive Order. This Executive Order 'legalized' its dissolution on October 1, 1945. The thorough reorganization that took place after that illustrates the bureaucracy's competition for resources. They also try to deal with the relationship between covert intelligence gathering and covert actions (paramilitary and psychological operations). As of October 1945, the functions of the OSS were divided between the Department of State and the Department of War: This division only lasted a few months. The concept and term "Central Intelligence Agency" first appeared in a proposal for restructuring the U.S. Army and Navy command. submitted

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