Indonesian

Article

January 20, 2022

Indonesian is the national and official language throughout Indonesia. It is the official language of communication, taught in schools and used for broadcast on electronic and digital media. As the country with the highest level of multilingualism (especially trilingual) in the world, the majority of Indonesians are also able to speak their own regional or tribal languages, with Javanese and Sundanese being spoken the most, which also have a major influence on elements of the Indonesian language itself. .With a large number of language speakers throughout the country along with a diaspora living abroad, Indonesian is listed as one of the most widely spoken or spoken languages ​​in the world. Apart from being on a national scale, Indonesian is also recognized as one of the official languages ​​in other countries such as Timor Leste and Vietnam. Indonesian is also officially taught and used in schools, universities and institutions around the world, especially in Australia, the Netherlands, Japan, South Korea, Timor Leste, Vietnam, Taiwan, the United States, England, etc. Has a long historical ties to the nation -Europeans, especially since the colonial era, some Indonesian vocabulary has been absorbed into several European languages, especially Dutch and English. Indonesian itself also has many loanwords originating from European languages, especially from Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Indonesian also has loanwords derived from Sanskrit, Chinese, and Arabic which blend into elements in the Indonesian language which are affected due to factors such as trade and religious activities that have been going on since ancient times in the Indonesian archipelago. The basis of standard Indonesian is Riau Malay. In its development, this language underwent changes due to its use as a working language in the colonial administration environment and various standardization processes since the early 20th century. The naming of "Indonesian" began with the declaration of the Youth Pledge on October 28, 1928, to avoid the impression of "language imperialism" if the name Malay was still used. This process caused the Indonesian language to differ today from the Malay variant spoken in Riau and the islands as well as the Malay Peninsula. Until now, Indonesian is a living language, which continues to produce new words, both through the creation and absorption of regional and foreign languages. Although it is understood and spoken by more than 90% of Indonesians, Indonesian is not the mother tongue for most of its speakers. Most Indonesians use one of the 748 languages ​​in Indonesia as their mother tongue. The term "Indonesian" is most commonly associated with the standard form used in official situations. The variety of standard languages ​​is related to diglossic with forms of vernacular Malay used as a means of daily communication. This means that Indonesian speakers often use colloquialisms and/or mix them up with other Malay dialects or their mother tongue. Nevertheless, Indonesian is used very widely in universities, in the mass media, literature, software, official correspondence, and various other public forums, so it can be said that Indonesian is used by all Indonesians. Phonology and grammar of Indonesian is considered relatively easy. According to some researchers, the basics essential to basic communication can be learned in just a few weeks.

History

Age of Hindu-Buddhist kingdom

A number of Old Malay inscriptions from Srivijaya were found on the southeast coast of Sumatra Island. This shows that the Malay language spread to various places in the archipelago from a strategic area for shipping and trade. Malay term ad

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