English

Article

November 28, 2021

English is a Germanic language that was first spoken in England in the Early Middle Ages and is today the most commonly spoken language worldwide. English is spoken as the first language by the majority of the population in many countries, including the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and a number of Caribbean countries; as well as being the official language of nearly 60 sovereign countries. English is the third most widely spoken mother tongue worldwide, after Mandarin and Spanish. English is also used as a second and official language by the European Union, Commonwealth of Nations, and the United Nations, as well as various other organizations. English first developed in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of England and in the area that now forms southeastern Scotland. After the spread of British influence in the 17th and 20th centuries through the British Empire, English became widespread throughout the world. In addition, the widespread use of English is also due to the spread of American culture and technology that dominated throughout the 20th century. These things have led to English today being the main language and unofficially (de facto) considered a lingua franca in many parts of the world. Historically, English originated from the fusion of various related dialects, which are now collectively known as the Old England, brought to the east coast of the Isle of Britain by Germanic settlers (Anglo-Saxons) in the 5th century; the English word' comes from the name Angles. The Anglo-Saxons themselves came from the Angeln region (currently Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). Early English was also influenced by Old Norse after the Vikings conquered England in the 9th and 10th centuries. The Norman conquest of England in the 11th century led to English also being influenced by Norman French, and English vocabulary and spelling began to be influenced by Roman Latin (though English itself is not a Romance language), which became known as English. Mid. The Vowel Shift that began in southern England in the 15th century is one of the historic events that marked the transition from Middle English to Modern English. In addition to Anglo-Saxons and Norman French, a large number of words in English also have Latin roots, because Latin was the lingua franca of the Christian Church and the main language of European intellectuals, and has become the vocabulary basis for modern English. Having experienced a diverse mix of words from various languages ​​throughout history, modern English has a very large vocabulary, with complex and irregular spellings, especially vowels. Modern English is not only a blend of European languages, but also from various languages ​​around the world. The Oxford English Dictionary lists more than 250,000 different words, excluding the vast number of technical, scientific, and slang terms.

Classification

English is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Germanic branch of the Germanic subfamily. Old English originates from a region of continuous dialect and culture along the coast of the North Sea of ​​Frisia. The speech variety in this region gradually developed into the Anglic languages ​​of the British Isles and the languages ​​of Frisian and Upper German/Upper Saxony in Mainland Europe. The Frisians are the closest relatives to English and other Anglic languages; all of these languages ​​belong to the Anglo-Frisian subgroup. The Upper German/Upstream Saxon speech variety is also closely related to this subgroup; sometimes English, Frisian, and Upper German are classified into the subgroup Ingvaeonic (Sea Germanic

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