Italian language

Article

December 6, 2021

Italian (lingua italiana or italiano) is a type of Romance language spoken by about 70 million people, the majority in Italy. Standard Italian is based on the Tuscan dialect and is a kind of mixture of Southern Italian and Northern Gallo-Roman languages. Standard Italian (without being affected by any dialect) is widely spoken in the city of Siena, Province of Tuscany, Italy. The long-standing Tuscan standard has been eroded over decades by the Italian language spoken in Milan, Italy's economic center. Italian has multiple consonants, like Latin (but different from other Gallo-Roman languages, such as French and Spanish). As with other Romance languages ​​(except French), the emphasis on pronunciation is an important feature.

Phonology

In Italian, the pronunciation of stress (stress) can only be pronounced in the ultima, penultima, and antepenultima positions. Ultima is the last syllable, penultima is the syllable before the last syllable and antepenultima is the syllable before the penultimate.

Grammar

Italian grammar retains much of the features of Latin and has much in common with other Romance languages. Every noun belongs to one of two genera: masculine or feminine. Every noun changes its ending or even form according to the number: plural or singular. Each verb belongs to one of 3 (three) groups of verbs -are, -ere, or -ire. Adjectives follow nouns according to their genera and number.

Nouns

Nouns in Italian are made up of masculine (maschile) and feminine (feminile) nouns, and have an article (il/la/lo/l'/i/gli/le). Every masculine noun usually ends in -o/-e, while feminine nouns usually end in -a. If the masculine noun is plural, the ending -o/-e changes to -i, while if the feminine noun is plural, the ending -a changes to -e. Nouns starting with the article il are masculine nouns (maschile). The plural of the article il is i. Examples of masculine nouns (maschile): book: il libro (plural: i libri), bread: il pane (plural: i pani), hat: il cappello (plural: i cappelli). As for feminine nouns (feminile) it begins with the article la. The plural of the article la is le. Examples of feminine nouns (feminile): chair: he is ready (plural: le sedie), bag: la borsa (plural: le borse), shoes: la scarpa (plural: le scarpe). Nouns starting with a vowel (a,i,u,e,o) use the article l'. The plural of l' is gli for masculine nouns and le for feminine nouns. Examples of nouns with vowels: citrus: l'arancia (plural: le arance), hospital: l'ospedale (plural: gli ospedali). For masculine nouns starting with the letters z, s and ps use the article lo. Example: uncle: lo zio, lessons: lo studio, psychiatrist: lo psicologo.

Example

English: inglese (ing-GLE-ze) goodbye: arrivederci (a-rii-ve-DER-chii) hello: ciao (CHA-o) (informal); buon giorno (bwon JOR-noh) (good morning), buona sera (BWO-na SE-ra) (good evening) how many? quanto (KWAN-to) (masculine); quanta (KWAN-ta) (feminine) thank you: grazie (GRA-dzye) thanks again: prego

Footnote

Bibliography

Serianni, Luca (2000). Italiano (in Italian). Milan: Garzanti. Berloco, Fabrizio (2018). The Big Book of Italian Verbs: 900 Fully Conjugated Verbs in All Tenses. With IPA Transcription, 2nd Edition (in English). Lengu. ISBN 978-8894034813.

External links

(English) Italian 101 Learn Italian online

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