Diamond

Article

August 12, 2022

A diamond or diamond (Dutch: briljant) is a valuable mineral that is chemically a crystalline form, or allotrope, of carbon. Diamonds are known for their excellent physical properties, especially their hardness, which can reach the highest Mohs hardness scale (10) and their ability to disperse light. It is these properties that make diamonds used in jewelry and various industrial applications. Diamonds are primarily mined in central and southern Africa, although significant diamond deposits have also been found in Canada, Russia, Brazil and Australia. Approximately 130 million "carats" (26,000 kg) of diamonds are mined annually, which amounts to approximately US$9 billion. In addition, nearly four times the weight of diamond is manufactured in a laboratory as a synthetic diamond (synthetic diamond) which has a Mohs hardness scale of 11, which can only be made in a laboratory.

Diamond mining

Diamonds are mainly mined from volcanic pipes, where the diamond content is derived from materials expelled from the Earth because the pressure and temperature are suitable for diamond formation. In Indonesia, diamonds have long been mined in the Martapura area, South Kalimantan. Diamonds are found in the bowels of the earth, which are excavated either manually or by mechanization. Now most of the diamond miners have used mechanization, namely with a suction machine to suck up the excavated soil. Soil is sucked up with water, sorted through a sieve. With his skills, the miner can distinguish ordinary stone, sand, or diamond. This newly acquired diamond is called "galuh" in the Martapura area. Galuh is still a raw diamond. To make it ready to use, the diamond must first be rubbed. Most of the diamond polishing in the community is still with traditional tools.

See also

Gemstones

External links

(English) Video: How a Diamond is Cut and Polished at Eurostar Diamonds International (English) Diamond formation phase diagrams and geotherms