Byzantion (Greek: , translit. Byzántion; Latin: Byzantium) is an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by the Greek colonists of Megara in 667 BC and named after their King Byzas or Byzantas (Greek : or ). The name "Byzantium" is a Latinization of the Greek name "Bizantion". The city later became the center of the Byzantine Empire, (the Greek-speaking Roman Empire before and in the Middle Ages under the name Constantinople. After the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire, the city was later known as Istanbul to the Ottoman Turks, but this name has not yet become the city's official name. this until 1930.
The origins of the Byzantines are shrouded in legend. According to traditional legend, Byzas of Megara (a city near Athens) founded Byzantion, when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. Byzas had sought advice from the Oracle at Delphi on where to build his new city. The oracle told him to build a city "in front of the blind." At that time, he did not understand the oracle's prophecy. But after arriving at the Bosporus, then realized its meaning: on the coast of Asia stands a Greek city, Chalcedon. They must have been the "blind ones" because they did not see the clearly superior territory only half a mile across from the Bosphorus. Byzas founded his city in that "superior" region and named it Byzantion after himself. The city of Byzantion was primarily a commercial city due to its strategic location at the only entrance to the Black Sea. Byzantion would later conquer Chalcedon, which lay across the Bosphorus.
After allying with Pescennius Niger against the victor, Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered heavy damage in 196. Byzantion was later rebuilt by Septimius Severus, then emperor, and quickly restored its prosperity. Byzantion's location attracted the attention of the Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in AD 330, rebuilt the city into Nova Roma (The New Rome). After his death, the city was called Constantinople ('the city of Constantine'). The city later became the capital of the Byzantine Empire, later called the Byzantine Empire by historians.
The combination of imperialism and its location influenced Constantinople's role as a crossing-point between two continents: Europe and Asia. The city is a commercial, cultural and diplomatic magnet. With its strategic location, Constantinople was able to control the route between Asia and Europe, as well as shipping from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea.
On May 29, 1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, and once again, became the capital of a powerful state, the Ottoman Empire. The Turks called this city Istanbul (though it was not officially renamed until 1930) and later became the largest city of the Turkish Republic, although Ankara is the capital of Turkey.
In 670 BC, the citizens of the Byzantine city made the crescent moon the symbol of their country, after an important victory. However, the origin of the crescent and the star as symbols goes back a long way - the ancient Babylonian and Egyptian times. Despite this, Byzantion was the first sovereign state to use the crescent moon as its national symbol. in AD 330, Constantine I added the star of the Virgin Mary to the crescent flag.
The crescent and star symbols were not completely abandoned by the Christian world after the fall of Constantinople. Until now the official flag of the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is a white labrum, a church building with two towers, and at the top is a black crescent facing the center and a star.