Federative Republic of Brazil or Federal Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil,
Latin: Respublica Foederativa Brasiliae) is the country with the largest area and population (204.5 million people in 2017) in South America. This country is the easternmost country on the South American continent and is bordered by the Andes Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. The name Brasil is taken from the name Brasil Wood, a type of local wood. Brazil is home to extensive agriculture and tropical rainforest. As a former colony of Portugal, Brazil's official language is Portuguese. In addition, Brazil is also the largest coffee producer in the world for the last 150 years.
Brazil won its independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822. The country, located in the central and eastern parts of South America, has been a Portuguese colony since 1494. In 1889, Brazil's system of government changed from a monarchy to a republic.
Brazil is bounded by the sea to the east, namely the Atlantic Ocean. The land borders with Brazil are Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French Guiana département; all countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile.
In the northern part of Brazil is the Amazon Forest and is increasingly open to the south with hills and small mountains. The south is the center of Brazil's population and agriculture. Several mountains are located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean which reach 2,900 meters with the highest peak of Pico da Neblina as high as 2,994 m. Rivers in Brazil include the Amazon River, Paraná, and Iguaçu where there is the Iguau Falls.
Brazil's climate is tropical because it is located at the equator with little variation. In the south, the climate is more temperate, but sometimes experiences snow. Rainfall is very high in the Amazon region while drier areas can be found in the northeast.
Important cities in Brazil include Brasilia, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Most of Brazil's territory is highlands and mountains. The most extensive highlands are the Brazilian highlands (in the east). To the east are the mountains of Brazil. In the center is the Mato Grosso Plateau and the south is the Panama Plateau.
The 1988 constitution gave the federal government great powers. Brazil's president holds extensive executive powers such as appointing the cabinet, and as head of state and government. The president and vice president are elected simultaneously in a general election every 4 years. Its National Congress (Congresso Nacional) is a bicameral body (two-chamber parliament) consisting of the Federal Senate (Senado Federal) and the Câmara dos Deputados consisting of 81 and 513 seats with different terms of office, respectively.
Brazil consists of 26 states (estado) and 1 federal district (distrito federal):
Brazilian Federal District
Mato Grosso do Sul
Rio de Janeiro
Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Sul
Brazil is Latin America's largest national economy, the world's eighth-largest economy at market exchange rates and the seventh-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. After rapid growth in previous decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in 2014 amid political corruption scandals and nationwide protests.
Currently GDP (PPP) per capita of $15,153 in 2014 puts Brazil in 77th position according to IMF data. Active in agriculture, mining, manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has