Czechoslovakia or Czech-Slovakia (Czech and Slovak: eskoslovensko or esko-Slovensko), is a country that once existed in Central Europe. Czechoslovakia's existence began when it gained independence from Austria-Hungary in October 1918 as a result of World War I.
The period leading up to and after World War II was a critical period for Czechoslovakia. In October 1938, a year before the war began, Czechoslovakia lost the Sudetenland to Germany and Zaolzie to Poland in the Munich Agreement. A month later, the First Vienna Judgment forced Czechoslovakia to cede its southern Slovak side and its Carpathian Ruthenians to Hungary. In the end, Czechoslovakia dissolved into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under German sovereignty and independent Slovakia.
After the war ended, Czechoslovakia was liberated and re-established, but lost its Carpathian Ruthenia, this time to the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union. After the coup in 1948, Czechoslovakia turned into a communist country with a command economy. He joined the Comecon in 1949 and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The uprising of Prague opened up Czechoslovak politics in 1968, but was crushed by the Warsaw Pact Invasion. Communism ended after his government was overthrown by the Velvet Revolution during the Fall of Communism. In 1993, Czechoslovakia again disbanded into two countries, namely the Czech Republic and present-day Slovakia.
1918–1938: Czechoslovak Republic (abbreviated as SR). Prior to the adoption of the name through the constitution in 1920, Czechoslovakia was also known as Czech-Slovakia.
1938–1939: Czech-Slovak Republic or Czech-Slovakia.
1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR) or Czechoslovakia.
1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR) or Czechoslovakia.
1990–1992: Czech Federal Republic and Slovakia (ČSFR) or Czechoslovakia.
Government and politics
After World War II, the political monopoly in the country was controlled by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). Gustáv Husák was elected first secretary of KS in 1969 (the position was changed to general secretary in 1971) and president of Czechoslovakia in 1975. There are parties from other organizations but are assigned subordinates to KSČ. All political parties, as well as various mass organizations in the country, were united under the umbrella of the National Front. Human rights activists and religious activists are very distressed by this policy.
Education is free at all levels and required from ages 6 to 15. Most of the population in this country are literate. There is a highly developed apprenticeship training system as well as vocational schools that complement public secondary schools and higher education institutions.
Based on 1991 data, Czechoslovakia's population consists of Roman Catholics 46%, Lutherans 5.3%, Atheists 30%, n/a 17%, but there are large differences in religious practice between the two republican constituents; see Czech and Slovak.
During the era between the World Wars, democracy and liberalism in Czechoslovakia facilitated the conditions for free publishing. The most significant daily newspapers of this period were Lidové noviny, Národní listy, eský deník and eskoslovenská republica.
During Communist rule, the mass media in Czechoslovakia was controlled by the Communist Party. Private ownership of mass media publications or agencies is generally prohibited, although churches and other organizations publish small magazines and newspapers. Even with the information monopoly in the hands of the organization under the control of KS, all publications are reviewed by the government's Press and Information Office.
Environmental impact in Czechoslovakia due to Soviet influence during the Cold War
Former countries in Europe after 1815
Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech Kingdom)
1968 Merah Red Square Demonstrations