The Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika e (e)l salβaˈðoɾ]) is a country in Central America bordering Honduras and Guatemala. This area was formerly referred to by the Pipil people as "Cuzhcatl", in Spanish "Cuzcatlan", which in Nahuatl means "land (where things are) valuable". Prior to Spanish control, the area was home to Mesoamerican peoples such as the Mayans. After the Spanish conquest, the area was baptized by the Spanish conquistadors under the name "Provincia De Nuestro Señor Jesucristo El Salvador Del Mundo" ("Province of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior of the World"), which is now shortened to "República de El Salvador" (literal meaning) : Republic of the Savior). There was a mixing of cultures between Spain and the indigenous tribes.
El Salvador and its neighbors Honduras and Guatemala are known to be the most dangerous regions in the world even when there are no wars with high homicide rates. This is due to political and economic instability. El Salvador has experienced coups, civil wars, and revolutions that have devastated the country. Weak government led to the emergence of various criminal gangs such as MS-13 who control their respective territories and fight against each other. This feud between rival gangs certainly endangers the population.
El Salvador is the most industrialized country in Central America and uses the United States dollar as its currency. El Salvador's industry is very diverse from food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, kerosene, agriculture, etc. Foreign exchange from workers in the United States to their families also helps El Salvador's economy. However, the country's poverty rate is still high.
In the early 15th century, Spanish conquistadors sailed from Central America from the Caribbean Islands, then known as the colony of New Spain. The Spaniards' attempts to expand their dominion into the area that would become known as El Salvador were hampered by the Pipil and other Maya-speaking circles. Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Hernan Cortés, led the first attempt by the Spanish army in June 1524.
The natives defeated the Spaniards and forced them to retreat to Guatemala, requiring two further expeditions—first in 1525, followed by a smaller group in 1528.
Towards the end of 1810, a combination of external and internal factors allowed the Central American elite to try to gain independence from Spain. These internal factors were mainly the increasing interest of the elite to control the areas they owned without the involvement of the Spanish authorities. External factors were the success of the French and American revolutions in the 18th century and the weakening of the Spanish military power due to the war against Napoleon of France. The independence movement was consolidated on November 5, 1811, when an El Salvadoran priest, Jose Matias Delgado, rang the bells of Iglesia La Merced in San Salvador, calling for rebellion. After years of internal warfare, Central America's Acta de Independencia (Proclamation of Independence) was signed in Guatemala on September 15, 1821.
On September 16, 1821, Mexico gained independence as the First Mexican Empire under Emperor Agustin de Iturbide, El Salvador and other Central American provinces declared independence from Spain and became part of the Mexican Empire. In 1823, the Provincias Unidas del Centro de América were formed by 5 Central American countries under the leadership of General Manuel José Arce. When the federation dissolved in 1838, El Salvador became an independent republic. El Salvador's early history as a sovereign nation was marked by a number of revolutions.
Between 1872-1898, El Salvador was the prime mover for the re-establishment of the isthmus federation. Government of El Salvador, Honduras, d