November 28, 2021
Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula or a subcontinent (peninsula). Its separation as a continent is more due to cultural differences. It is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Mediterranean Sea. The eastern boundary is still unclear because the separation of this continent itself was initiated by cultural factors. The boundaries that are often used as the boundaries of the European and Asian continents are the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea.
This continent is the second smallest continent after Australia with an area of 10,180,000 km² while when calculated from its population, this continent is located in the third most populous (below Asia and Africa) with 742.5 million people in 2013 or equal to one-eighth. world population. The continent of Europe is astronomically located at 35° N - 71° N and 11° W - 66° East.
Europe has a long cultural and economic history, starting with the Palaeolithic. Recent discoveries in Monte Poggiolo, Italy, of thousands of handcrafted rocks that have been carbon-dated as far back as 800,000 years, provide an important piece of evidence.
The origins of Western democratic and individualistic culture are often said to have originated in Ancient Greece, although several other influences, such as Christianity, also contributed to the spread of concepts such as eglitarianism, and the universality of law.
The Roman Empire divided the continent along the Rhine, and the Danube for several centuries. Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe experienced the rise of what is known as the Age of Migration. This period is known as the Dark Ages until the Renaissance. During this time, monastic communities were isolated in Ireland, and in some other places guarded, and carefully gathered, previously collected written knowledge. The Renaissance and the New Monarchy marked the beginning of a period of discovery, exploration, and improvement in scientific knowledge. In the 15th century Portugal opened its doors to discovery, which was followed by Spain. Then France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom joined in building a large colonial empire with vast territories in Africa, America, and Asia.
After a period of discovery, democratic concepts began to find their influence in Europe. Struggles for independence emerged, especially in France during the period known as the French Revolution. This caused great upheaval in Europe as these revolutionary ideas spread across the continent. The rise of democracy led to increased pressure in Europe in addition to the existing tensions due to competition in the New World. Of these, the most famous conflict was when Napoleon Bonaparte seized power, and formed the French Empire which fell shortly thereafter. After these events, Europe slowly stabilized, but remnants of the old period concepts have begun to crumble.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, leading to a shift away from agriculture, increasing prosperity of the people, and population growth. Many countries in Europe found its current form post-World War II. From the end of World War II until the Cold War, Europe was divided into two main political and economic blocs: the communist countries in Eastern Europe, and the capitalist countries in Western Europe. Around 1989, the Eastern Bloc broke apart with the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Geographically, Europe is part of a larger landmass known as Eurasia. This continent starts from the Ural Mountains in Russia, which describes Europe's eastern boundary with Asia. The southeastern boundary with Asia is not clearly delineated. The most common are the Ural River or the Emba River. The boundary continues with the Caspian Sea, and then the Caucasus Mountains, or the Kuma-Manych Depression, and all the way to the Black Sea; The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles end the boundaries of Asia. Mediterranean Sea