Hepatitis of unknown origin in children 2022

Article

July 5, 2022

In 2022, several cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology (origin and cause) in children were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) from several countries. Previously, in October 2021, a cluster of acute hepatitis cases was identified at a children's hospital in the State of Alabama, United States (US). On May 2, 2022, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia reported that three children died from acute hepatitis during April 2022.

Symptoms

Symptoms found in sufferers of this disease are as follows: nauseous, vomit, heartburn, severe diarrhea, fever, yellow, seizures, and loss of consciousness.

Suspected cause

On April 25, 2022, Meera Chand, head of clinical and new infections at the UK Health Safety Board, said that information from their investigation led to an association with an increase in the number of cases of acute hepatitis in children with adenovirus infection. BBC News reports that some scientists feel that the rise in the number of cases could be due to changes in the genetic makeup of the adenovirus that causes hepatitis, making it more potent in inflammation of the liver. Another explanation is that the physical restrictions imposed during the Covid-19 pandemic caused children to be exposed to adenovirus too late so they had a stronger immune response. Other possible explanations include poison, viral infection with Covid-19, and infection with Covid-19. According to WHO, these theories need further investigation. While the possible association between cases of acute hepatitis other than A–E and side effects of the Covid-19 vaccination is considered, the odds seem small and inappropriate because most cases occur in unvaccinated children. against Covid-19. As per last report; Although rare, cases of acute hepatitis other than A–E occur in children under five who should not be vaccinated against Covid-19, so there is very little chance that the Covid-19 vaccination will have an effect on this outbreak.

History

From October 2021 to February 2022, nine children at Children's Hospital of Alabama were found to have severe hepatitis of no apparent origin. Everything was healthy before. The US CDC was notified in November 2021. On March 31, 2022, Public Health Scotland (PHS) was notified of five children aged three to five years who were diagnosed with hepatitis of unknown origin at the Royal Hospital for Children (Glasgow). On 5 April 2022, the National Focal Point (NFP) International Health Regulations (IHR) for the United Kingdom (UK) notified WHO of ten cases of acute severe hepatitis of no apparent origin in children in Scotland of which one had been symptomatic since January, while the rest were only symptomatic in March 2022. They were healthy before. By 8 April 2022, the number of recognized cases in the UK stood at 74 and six of them required a liver transplant. Thereafter, several cases were reported in Ireland and Spain. As of 21 April 2022, there were 114 cases in the UK. As of 23 April 2022, eleven European countries and the United States had reported at least 169 cases of acute hepatitis in children under 16 years of age with the most cases in the UK. The viruses that cause hepatitis in general, A, B, C, D, and E, were absent in all 169 cases. Most did not have a fever, but had diarrhea, vomiting, and heartburn before being found to have elevated liver enzymes in their blood and had jaundice. According to the WHO, "It is not yet clear whether there is an increase in the number of hepatitis cases or an increased awareness of hepatitis cases that are occurring at a suspected but undetected rate." The WHO confirmed one child death, 17 liver transplants and that the youngest affected child was one month old. At least 74 have tested positive for adenovirus, 20 have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 19 of them have tested positive for both. Most of the affected children have not received the Covid-19 vaccine. The WHO report of 23 April 2022 confirmed that there are