Dutch East Indies

Article

August 12, 2022

The Dutch East Indies or the Dutch East Indies (Dutch: Nederlands(ch)-Indië) was a Dutch occupied territory whose territory is now known as the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch East Indies were formed as a result of the nationalization of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) colonies, which came under Dutch rule in 1800. During the 19th century, Dutch colonies and hegemony expanded, reaching their largest territorial extent in the early 20th century. The Dutch East Indies was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire, and contributed to the Dutch global prominence in the spice and produce trade in the 19th to early 20th centuries. The colonial social order was based on a rigid racial and social structure with Dutch elites living separately but in contact with the indigenous population they colonized. The term "Indonesia" began to be used for a geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began to develop the concept of Indonesia as a state and nation, and set the stage for the independence movement. Japan's occupation in World War II weakened most of the colonial and economic states. Dutch. After Japan's surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared the independence they had fought for during the Indonesian National Revolution which took place in the following months. The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Round Table Conference and ceded all of its former colonies, with the exception of Papua (Dutch New Guinea), which was ceded to Indonesia 14 years later in 1963 under the terms of the New York Agreement at United Nations Headquarters.

Etymology

The word Indies comes from the Latin: Indus. The original name Dutch Indies (Dutch: Nederlandsch-Indië) is translated by the English as "Dutch East Indies", to distinguish it from the Dutch West Indies. The name "Dutch Indies" was recorded in the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) document in the early 1620s. Historians writing in English use the terms Indië, Indies, Dutch East Indies, Dutch East Indies, and colonial Indonesia interchangeably.

History

VOC power

Centuries before the arrival of Europeans, the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by various entities, including commercially oriented coastal trading kingdoms and inland agrarian kingdoms (the most important of which were Srivijaya and Majapahit). The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1512. After experiencing disruptions to access to spices in Europe, the Dutch made their first shipping expedition to the East Indies in 1595 to get spices directly from Asia. When they made a profit of up to 400%, another Dutch expedition soon followed. Realizing the trade potential of the East Indies, the Dutch government merged the competing companies into the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC). The VOC was given privileges to fight, build forts, and make treaties throughout Asia. The capital was founded in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became the center of the VOC trading network in Asia. For their native monopolies such as nutmeg, paprika, cloves and cinnamon, the VOC and later the colonial government introduced foreign crops to non-natives such as coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, rubber, sugar and opium, and safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over territory. surroundings. Smuggling, war costs, corruption, and continued mismanagement led to bankruptcy in the late 18th century. The VOC was officially dissolved in 1800 and its possessions in the Indonesian archipelago (including most of Java, parts of Sumatra, most of the Moluccas, and inland harbor areas such as Makassar, Mana