November 28, 2021

India (Hindi: Bhaarat) or (Īndiyaa), with the official name Republic of India (Hindi: गणराज्य; Hindi pronunciation: [bʱɑː.ɾət̪ .ɾɑːd͡ʒ.jᵊ], romanized as Bhārat Gaṇarājya is a country in Asia with a population of second most populous country in the world, with a population of over one billion people, and is the seventh largest country by geographic area size.India's population has grown rapidly since the mid-1980s.India's economy is the world's third largest in GDP, measured by power parity (PPP), and one of the fastest growing economies in the world.India, the world's largest liberal democracy, has also emerged as an important regional power, has the largest military power, and has nuclear weapons capabilities. Located in South Asia with a coastline of 7,000 km, and part of the Indian subcontinent, India is part of an important and historic trade route. India shares borders with Pakistan, People's Republic of China, Myanmar. Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan. Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia are contiguous archipelagic countries. India is home to ancient civilizations such as the Indus River Valley Civilization and is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. The country was part of the United Kingdom before gaining independence in 1947.


India was one of the first places to be inhabited by humans after migration from Africa. Humans arrived in India via the coasts along the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf. It is likely that the first group of people arrived in India around 50,000 BC. In the 3000s BC, the Harappans built Bronze Age cities on the Indus River (modern-day Pakistan). They do trade with West Asia. In the 2000s BC, the Harappan civilization collapsed. The exact cause of this collapse is not known. Not long after that, Indo-Europeans came from Central Asia to India. They were also called the Vedas or Aryans, and brought with them their horses, chariots, and language. Their religion was mixed with local religion to later produce Hinduism. The caste system also began to emerge at this time. Around the 800s BC, the Vedas moved from the Indus Valley to conquer all of North India, including the Ganges valley. In 539 BC, Persia, under Cyrus the Great, invaded northern India (modern Pakistan) and made it part of the Persian Empire. In 323 BC, Alexander the Great, while conquering the Persian Empire, also launched an attack on India. After that emerged the powerful countries in India. The first is the Mauryan Empire which was founded in 321 BC and collapsed in 184 BC. This period was followed by a period of minor kingdoms until in 320 AD the Gupta Empire was established which lasted until 550 AD. Other major kingdoms also emerged in southern India. Starting around the 400s AD, waves of attacks from Central Asia and West Asia began to invade India. At first, the Huns attacked, then, after the fall of the Guptas, the Muslims succeeded in capturing northern India and establishing the Delhi Sultanate. Around the 1200s and 1300s AD, the Mongols also made repeated attacks on India. All these conflicts took place mainly in northern India. Meanwhile in southern India, the local Indian kingdoms were relatively undisturbed. In northern India, Mongol power had disappeared before finally in 1526 AD a Mongol state was established called the Mughal Empire. In the 1700s AD, the Mughals weakened and split into smaller kingdoms. This triggered the British to move and conquer India.


All of India's northern and northeastern states are formed by the Himalayan Range. The rest of the region comprises the fertile Indo-Gangetic expanse. To the west, bordered by southeastern Pakistan, is the Thar Desert. Indian Peninsula

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