Israel

Article

November 28, 2021

Israel (Hebrew: ישראל, translit. Medinat Yisrā'el‎; Arabic: الدولة ائيل, translit. al-Dawlat Isrā'īl‎) is a country in the Middle East surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt. and the Sinai desert. It is also surrounded by two areas of the Palestinian National Authority: the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. With a population of 7.5 million, Israel is the only Jewish state in the world. In addition, there are also several other minority ethnic groups, including Arabs with Israeli citizenship, as well as other religious groups such as Muslims, Christians, Druze, Samaritans, and others. The establishment of the modern state of Israel is rooted in the concept of the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael), a central concept of Judaism since ancient times, which was also the territorial center of the ancient Kingdom of Judah. After World War I, the League of Nations approved the British Mandate of Palestine as a "state of the Jews". In 1947, the United Nations approved the division of Palestine into two states, one Jewish state and one Arab state. On May 14, 1948, Israel proclaimed its independence and this was soon followed by war with the surrounding Arab states who opposed this plan of division. Israel then won this war and confirmed its independence. As a result of this war, Israel succeeded in expanding its territorial boundaries beyond the boundaries determined by the Palestine Division Plan. Since then, Israel has been in constant conflict with neighboring Arab countries, causing wars and violence that continue to this day. Since the beginning of the establishment of the State of Israel, the boundaries of the state of Israel and Israel's right to exist have been contested by many parties, especially by Arab countries and Palestinian refugees. Israel has signed peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan, but peace efforts between Palestine and Israel have so far been unsuccessful. Israel is a democracy with a parliamentary system of government and universal suffrage. The Israeli prime minister serves as head of government and the Knesset serves as Israel's legislature. In terms of gross domestic product, the country's economy is ranked 44th in the world. Israel has the highest Human Development Index, press freedom, and economic competitiveness ratings of any Arab country around it.

Etymology

For more than three thousand years, the name "Israel" has had a general and religious meaning as either the Land of Israel or the entire Jewish state. According to the Bible, Jacob was named Israel after a successful struggle with an angel of God. Based on the discovery of archaeological artifacts, the name "Israel" (other than as a personal name) is the earliest mentioned in the ancient Egyptian Merneptah inscription (around the end of the 13th century BC). In the inscription the name "Israel" itself refers to a group of people who came from a certain land. The modern state of Israel is called Medinat Yisrael, which means "State of Israel". In addition, other names were proposed, including Eretz Israel ("Land of Israel"), Zion, and Judea, but all were rejected. In English, citizens of Israel are referred to as Israelis. The term was chosen by the Israeli government at the start of its independence. This was officially announced by Israel's then Foreign Minister, Moshe Sharett. The area is also known as the Holy Land, which is sacred to all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í faith. Prior to the 1948 Israeli Declaration of Independence, the entire region was known by various other names, including Southern Syria, Palestinian Syria, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Province of Iudaea, Coele-Syria, Retjenu, Canaan and, in particular, Palestine.

History

Beginning of history

The Land of Israel, known in Hebrew as Eretz Yisrael, is the holy land of the Jews. According to the Torah,

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