Jakarta Capital Special Region

Article

May 22, 2022

Jakarta (Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒaˈkarta] ( listen)), or officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (abbreviated DKI Jakarta) or Greater Jakarta is the capital city and the largest city in Indonesia. Jakarta is the only city in Indonesia that has a provincial-level status. Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java Island. In the past, it was known by several names including Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, and Batavia. Jakarta also has the nickname The Big Durian because it is considered a city comparable to New York City (Big Apple) in Indonesia. Jakarta has an area of ​​about 664.01 km² (ocean: 6,977.5 km²), with a population of 10,562,088 people (2020). The Jakarta metropolitan area (Jabodetabek) has a population of about 28 million people. As the center of business, politics, and culture, Jakarta is home to the headquarters of state-owned enterprises, private companies, and foreign companies. The city is also the seat of government institutions and the ASEAN secretariat office. Jakarta is served by two airports, namely Soekarno–Hatta Airport and Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, as well as three seaports in Tanjung Priok, Sunda Kelapa and Ancol.

Etymology

The name Jakarta has changed its name several times. Sunda Kalapa (397–1527) Jayakarta (1527–1619) Batavia (1619–1942) Jakarta (1942–present) DKI Jakarta (1998–present) The name Jakarta has been used since the Japanese occupation in 1942, to refer to the former Gemeente Batavia area which was inaugurated by the Dutch East Indies government in 1905. The name "Jakarta" is an abbreviation of the word Jayakarta (Dewanagari script: ), namely the name from the Sanskrit language given by the people of Demak and Cirebon under the leadership of Fatahillah (Faletehan) after the Portuguese attacked and succeeded in occupying the port of Sunda Kelapa on June 22, 1527. The name translates as "city of victory" or "city of glory". However, it actually means "victory achieved by an act or effort" because it comes from two Sanskrit words namely Jaya (जय) which means "victory" and Karta (कृत) which means "achieved". Another form of spelling of the name of this city has long been used . The Portuguese historian, João de Barros, in his Décadas da sia (1553) mentions the existence of "Xacatara under another name Caravam (Karawang)". A document (charter) from Banten (c. 1600) read by the epigrapher Van der Tuuk has also mentioned the term wong Jacketra, as well as the name Jacketra is also mentioned in the letters of the Sultan of Banten and Sajarah Banten (pupuh 45 and 47) as studied by Hoessein Djajadiningrat. Cornelis de Houtman's 1596 report referred to Prince Wijayakrama as koning van Jacatra (king of Jakarta).

History

See also: Sunda Kelapa, Kingdom of Sunda and History of Batavia

Sunda Kelapa (397–1527)

Jakarta was first known as one of the ports of the Sunda Kingdom named Sunda Kalapa (Sundanese script: ), located at the mouth of the Ciliwung River. The capital of the Sunda Kingdom known as Dayeuh Pakuan Padjadjaran or Pajajaran (now Bogor) can be reached from the port of Sunda Kalapa for a two-day journey. According to Portuguese sources, Sunda Kalapa was one of the ports owned by the Sunda Kingdom in addition to the ports of Banten, Pontang, Cigede, Tamgara and Cimanuk. Sunda Kalapa which in this text is called Kalapa is considered the most important port because it can be reached from the royal capital called Dayo (in modern Sundanese: dayeuh which means "capital city") within two days. The Sunda Kingdom itself is a continuation of the Tarumanagara Kingdom in the 5th century so this port is estimated to have existed since the 5th century and is estimated to be the capital city of Tarumanagara called Sundapura (Sanskrit which means "Sunda City"). In the 12th century, this port is known as the busy pepper port. Foreign ships that b