Kabul (Persian: ابل Kābol IPA: [kɒːˈbol]; Pashtun: ابل Kābul IPA: [kɑˈbul]; archaic Caubul) is the capital and largest city in Afghanistan with a population of about 4.6 million. A tunnel connects Kabul with the Tajikistan border under the Hindu Kush Mountains.
Commodities produced in Kabul include clothing, sugar beets, furniture and weapons. Kabul's economic productivity performance has been reduced due to the war that has continued since 1979.
Kabul is more than 3,000 years old. Many kingdoms fought for this city, due to its strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia. In 1504, Babur made this place the capital of the Moghul Empire. In 1776, Timur Shah Durrani made it the capital of modern Afghanistan.
In 674, the Islamic invasion reached present-day Afghanistan and conquered Kabul. Over the next 1100 years, the city was ruled by the Samanids, the Hindu Shahi dynasty, the Ghaznavids, the Ghorids, the Timurid dynasty, the Mughal Empire and finally the Durrani Empire.
In the 14th century Kabul revived as a trading center under Timur Lang, who married the sister of the ruler of Kabul. As Timur's power waned, the city was captured by Babur in 1504 and made it his headquarters.
In November 2001, the Northern Alliance captured Kabul after the Taliban abandoned it following the American invasion. A month later the new government under President Hamid Karzai began to assemble. Meanwhile, the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is deployed in Afghanistan. The war-torn city is starting to see some positive developments as many Afghan expats return to the country. The city's population grew from about 500,000 in 2001 to more than 3 million in recent years. Many foreign embassies have reopened. In 2008 the process began to gradually hand over security responsibility from NATO to Afghan forces. Since late 2001 the city has continued to be rebuilt - many damaged landmarks were rebuilt or renovated, for example Babur Park in 2005, Paghman arch, Mahmoud Khan Bridge clock tower in 2013, and Tajbeg Palace in 2021. Local community efforts have also been made. managed to restore war-torn local homes and dwellings.
The city has experienced rapid urbanization with a growing population. Many informal settlements have been built. Since the late 2000s, many modern housing complexes have been built, many of which are gated and secured, to serve Afghanistan's growing middle class. Some of them include Aria City (in District 10) and Gold City (District 8). Several complexes have been built outside the city, such as the town of Omid-e-Sabz (District 13), the town of Qasaba/Khwaja Rawash (District 15), and the town of Sayed Jamaludin (District 12). For many years, the "Green Zone" was high security. formed in the city center. In 2010, a series of manned checkpoints called the Ring of Steel were put into operation. Concrete blast walls also appeared throughout Kabul in the 2000s for security reasons. Despite frequent terrorist attacks in the city, especially by the Taliban group, the city continues to grow and was the fifth fastest growing city in the world in 2012. As of August 2021, the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) have taken charge of security in and around the city. Kabul has periodically been the site of deadly bombings carried out mostly by the Taliban but also by the Haqqani network, ISIL and other anti-state groups. Government employees, soldiers, and ordinary civilians were all targets of attacks. The Afghan government has called the terrorist act a war crime. The deadliest attack was the truck bombing in May 2017. In August