East Kalimantan (abbreviated as Kaltim) is an Indonesian province on the eastern tip of the island of Kalimantan, bordering Malaysia, North Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, West Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The total area of East Kalimantan is 127,346.92 km² and a population of 3,793,152 people (2020). East Kalimantan is the region with the fourth lowest population density in the archipelago. The capital city of this province is the city of Samarinda.
The province of East Kalimantan before being divided into North Kalimantan was the second largest province in Indonesia after Papua, with an area of 194,489 square kilometers which is almost the same as the island of Java or about 6.8% of the total area of Indonesia.
Previously, the majority of East Kalimantan was tropical rain forest. There are several kingdoms in East Kalimantan, including the Kutai Kingdom (Hinduism), the Kutai Kartanegara ing Martadipura Sultanate, the Pasir Sultanate and the Berau Sultanate. In the centers of these kingdoms developed cognate languages which have a common thread from the ancestral language of the same language, namely the Malay language family. The area of East Kalimantan including Paser, Kutai, Berau and also Karasikan (Buranun/pre-Sultanate of Sulu) is claimed to be the conquered territory of Maharaja Suryanata, governor of Majapahit in the State of Dipa (which is located at the Great Temple in Amuntai) until 1620 during the Banjar Sultanate. Even before the arrival of reinforcements from the Demak Sultanate, the Banjar Sultanate had already extended its influence to Paser, Kutai, and Berau. The agreement signed between Pieter Pietarsz (VOC envoy) and Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa ing Martapura, King of Kutai Kartanegara in 1635 stated, among other things, that free trade was only allowed between the Kutai Kingdom and the Banjarese and the Dutch. expanding the influence of the power of the Kutai Sultanate on the Dayak people in the interior. Since then, traders from Banjar began to dominate before the arrival of the Bugis migration in 1638-1654 and the fall of Makassar to the Dutch in 1667. Between 1620-1624, the countries in East Kalimantan were claimed as areas of influence of Sultan Alauddin of the Gowa Sultanate, Makassar. , before the Bungaya agreement. According to Hikayat Banjar, the Sultan of Makassar had borrowed ("rented") land for trading in the eastern and southeastern regions of Kalimantan to Sultan Mustin Billah from Banjar when Kiai Martasura was sent to Makassar and entered into an agreement with Sultan Tallo I Mangngadaccinna Daeng I Ba'le' Sultan Mahmud Karaeng Pattingalloang, who became mangkubumi and main advisor to Sultan Muhammad Said, King of Gowa in 1638-1654 and also the father-in-law of Sultan Hasanuddin who would make East Kalimantan a trading place for the Makassar Sultanate (Gowa-Tallo), since That's when the ethnic origin of South Sulawesi began to arrive. However, based on the Treaty of the Sultanate of Banjar with the VOC in 1635, the VOC helped Banjar return the lands in East Kalimantan to the area of influence of the Sultanate of Banjar. This was embodied in the Bungaya agreement, that the Makassar Sultanate was prohibited from trading to the east and north of Kalimantan.
According to the treaty of January 1, 1817, Sultan Sulaiman of Banjar handed over East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, parts of West Kalimantan and parts of South Kalimantan (including Banjarmasin) to the Dutch East Indies. CONTRACT MET DEN SULTAN VAN BANDJERMASIN 4 May 1826. / B 29 September 1826 No. 10, Sultan Adam al-Watsiq Billah of Banjar reaffirmed the surrender of East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, part of West Kalimantan and part of South Kalimantan to the Dutch East Indies colonial government. In 1846, the Dutch began placing Assistant Residents in Samarinda for the East Borneo region (now province of East Kalimantan and the eastern part of South Kalimantan) named H. Von Dewall. East Kalimantan is part of the Indies Bela