May 22, 2022
The word "catholic" (καθολικός, katolikos; Latin: catholicus) comes from the Greek phrase (katolou), meaning "all of you", "as a whole", or "am", a compound word (kata), meaning " subject", and the word (holos), which means "sarwa". The term "Catholic" (with a capital k) was first used in the early 2nd century as a term for the entire Christian world. In the realm of ecclesiology, this term has a long history and is used with various meanings. In Indonesia, this word can mean "things about Catholic Christianity" as well as "things about historical teachings and practices of the Western Church". This word is used by many Christians as a designation for the Universal Church or all those who believe in Jesus Christ regardless of denomination, and is also used in a more narrow sense as a designation for Catholicism, which includes several historic churches with the same basic beliefs. Catholicos, the title of supreme leader in a number of Eastern Churches, also comes from the same root. This term is already attached to the name of the largest Christian community in the world, namely the Catholic Church. The three main branches of Christianity in the East, namely the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Persian Church, have always called themselves Catholic, according to the apostolic tradition and the Nikean creed. Anglicans, Lutherans, and some Methodists believe that their churches are also "Catholic", in the sense of being a continuation of the early world Church founded by Christ's apostles. However, each Church interprets the term "Catholic Church" differently. For example, both the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Persian Church assert that their denomination is a continuation of the worldwide Early Church, while all other denominations are just fragments of it. The beliefs that characterize Catholicism, namely the beliefs of the majority of Christians who call themselves "Catholics", include episcopalism, namely glorifying bishops as the highest clergy in Christianity, and acceptance of the Nikean creed in 381. Catholicism is also considered as a one of the four characteristics of the Church, as stated in one of the points of the Nikean creed which reads "I believe in the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." In the Middle Ages and the Modern Age, there was a shift in the meaning of the terms Western Catholic and Eastern Catholic. Prior to the East-West Schism of 1054, these two terms meant only different regions, because there was only one Catholicism, which included both Latin-speaking Christians in the West and Greek-speaking Christians in the East. After the East-West Schism, the meaning of these terms became more and more complicated, and gave rise to several parallel but contradictory terms.