Abbasid Caliphate


August 12, 2022

The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسية, al-khilāfah al-'abbāsīyyah) or the Abbasids (Arabic: العباسيون, al-'abbāsīyyūn) was the second Islamic caliphate that ruled in Baghdad (now the capital of Iraq) and then moved to Cairo since 1261. This caliphate grew rapidly and made the Islamic world the center of world knowledge. This caliphate came to power after seizing it from the Umayyads and subjugating all of its territory except Andalusia. The Abbasids refer to the descendants of the youngest uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, namely Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib (566-652), therefore they also belong to the Bani Hashim. Reigned from 750 and moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. Thriving for three centuries, but slowly faded after the rise of the Turks who were previously part of the caliphate army they formed, and were known as the Mamluks. During the 150 years of taking power over Iran, the caliphate was forced to cede power to local dynasties, often called emirs or sultans. Surrendered Andalusia to the fleeing descendants of the Umayyads, the Maghreb and Ifriqiya to the Aghlabiyyah and Fatimids. Its total fall in 1258 was due to the Mongol attack led by Hulagu Khan who destroyed Baghdad and left nothing of the knowledge accumulated in Baghdad's library. The Abbasid caliphate continued in Cairo from 1261 under the auspices of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. This caliphate in Cairo ended when Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 and the title of caliph was claimed by the Turkish Ottoman dynasty. Descendants of the Abbasids including the al-Abbasi tribe currently reside in northeastern Tikrit, present-day Iraq.


Propaganda at the time of Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz

During the reign of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, the Umayyads had nothing special about their Muslim brothers. The people are free to express their position, as long as they do not disturb public peace. Although this attitude is correct, this policy actually weakened the Umayyad government which was founded on violence (despotism). Therefore, people secretly tried to organize propaganda to establish the Daulah of Bani Abbas. Even though it was Bani Abbas who carried out this propaganda, the name of Bani Abbas was not so highlighted. Instead, they used the names of Bani Hasyim, so as not to split between the followers of Ali and Banu Abbas, because they were both from Bani Hasyim. Since the first, the Umayyads were never hostile to the Bani Abbas, but only against the Bani Ali. If the Bani Abbas declared the claim to the caliphate rank for themselves, of course there would not be many followers. Propaganda centers are in two places, namely Kufa and Khurasan. Kufa was counted as a new country in Iraq, and Iraq at that time was included in the Persian territory. Khurasan is also included in the Persian area. Both of them became the center of the secret society because the Umayyads themselves had a strong position among the Arabs, while the daulah that would be established wanted to focus on Persia, not Arabia. In both countries, many people were not happy if the Caliph was not held by the Bani Hashim, even though they were the ones who were closely related to the Apostle. They appointed 12 propagandists. The twelve people wandered in the land of Khurasan, Kufa, Iraq, then came to Mecca during the pilgrimage season. They targeted people who opposed the tyranny of the Umayyad government. It was also explained how the original descendants of Bani Hasyim had been urged and deprived of the hereditary rights that they had received from the Apostle. One of the famous propagandists was Abu Muslim al-Khurasany. At first he propagated openly in the land of Maru. He ordered the whole country to gather. He held a speech criticizing the current government. Muhammad bin Ali, the great-grandson of Abbas