May 22, 2022

Qibla (from Arabic: لة, translit. qiblah‎ which means "direction") is the direction that Muslims go in some contexts of worship, including prayer. This direction leads to the Kaaba building in the Grand Mosque, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, which according to Muslims is a sacred building built by two Prophets, namely Ibrahim and his son Ismail. According to Muslim belief, this Qibla direction was ordered by Allah in the Qur'an, Surah Al-Baqarah verses 144, 149, and 150 which was revealed to Muhammad in the 2nd year of Hijri; Previously Muhammad and his followers in Medina oriented towards Jerusalem. In addition to prayer, Qibla is also the direction of ihram in Hajj, the direction of the animal's face when slaughtered, the direction of the body of a Muslim when buried, the recommended direction for praying, and the direction to avoid urinating and expelling phlegm. In mosque architecture, generally there is a mihrab, which is a niche in one of the walls of the mosque to show the side that leads to the Qibla. In practice, there are two ways to face the Qibla, namely 'ainul ka'bah (directly towards the Kaaba building) or jihatul ka'bah (roughly leading to the Kaaba without having to be exact). Most scholars are of the opinion that 'ainul ka'bah is only required if possible (for example at the location of the Grand Mosque and its surroundings), and if not, jihatul ka'bah can be carried out. Technically, the most common definition of Qibla used by Muslim astronomers is the direction shown by a large circle on a globe that connects a place to the Kaaba. This direction indicates the shortest distance that can be drawn from that place towards the Kaaba. This definition allows the exact calculation (calculation) of the Qibla direction through trigonometric formulas based on local latitude and longitude coordinates as well as the coordinates of the Kaaba. These trigonometric formulas also underlie software such as Qibla direction smartphone applications, and for compiling tables that can be used in aids such as the Qibla compass. In addition, twice a year (i.e. 28 May at 12.18 Saudi Arabia Time/16.18 West Indonesia Time and 16 July at 12.27 WAS/16.27 WIB) the Kaaba is directly under the position of the sun so that the image of an upright object at both times indicates the direction of the sun. mecca. Before astronomy or astronomy was known in the Islamic world, Muslims also had time to use various traditional methods to determine the direction of Qibla, such as following the habits of the companions of the Prophet, following the rising and setting positions of celestial bodies, or the direction of the wind. After the entry of Greek astronomical works, mathematical formulas for finding Qibla direction began to be developed by Muslim scientists, and in the 9th and 10th centuries equivalent methods to the modern Qibla formula were discovered by scientists including Habasy al-Hasib. , An-Nairizi, and Ibn Yunus. Initially, this mathematical method was used together with various traditional methods so that many Muslim cities had mosques with various Qibla directions. Since the 18th and 19th centuries, accurate coordinate positioning methods have been available, making it possible to mathematically calculate Qibla direction with more accurate results than ever before. However, mosques with various old Qibla directions still stand in Muslim-populated cities to this day. Ahead of the mission of Malaysian astronaut Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor to the International Space Station (ISS) in October 2007, there was discussion about the direction of the Qibla from outer space. In response to a request for guidance from Muszaphar, Malaysian clerics prioritized the directions that could be followed if possible: 1) Kaaba 2) "projection of the Kaaba" into space 3) Earth 4) "anywhere". They also mention the importance of prioritizing "what is possible", in line with the opinion of several other Muslim thinkers.

Qibla location

The Kaaba, which is in the middle of the Grand Mosque, Mecca, is the location of the mecca of Muslims. Apart from being a kibl