May 22, 2022

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba) is a sovereign state consisting of the island of Cuba, and Isla de la Juventud and several smaller islands. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Cuba is south of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and east of Mexico. Havana is the largest city and capital; Other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, and second-most populous after Hispaniola, with more than 11 million inhabitants. Prior to Spanish colonization in the late 15th century, Cuba was inhabited by Amerindian tribes. It remained a Spanish colony until the Spanish–United States War of 1898, which resulted in the Platt Amendment becoming a de facto United States protected territory in 1902. As a fragile republic, Cuba sought to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife escalated. in the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Further unrest and instability led to Batista's overthrow in January 1959 by the 26 July Movement, which later established a government under Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the country has been governed by the Cuban Communist Party. A pawn during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Culturally, Cuba is considered Latin America. It is a country with multiethnic people, cultures and customs stemming from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves, and close ties to the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Cuba is a one-party state of Marxism–Leninism, where the role of the Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment and torture. Cuba is a developed country with a planned economy dominated by exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labour. Ranks highly on several national performance metrics, including health care and education.


Cuba was first visited by Europeans when Christopher Columbus first landed on October 28, 1492, on the eastern tip of Cuba, in Cazigazgo, Baracoa region. Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar led the Spanish invasion, conquered the indigenous population, became governor of Cuba to Spain in 1511 and built a villa in Baracoa, which became the island's first capital city. In 1518 it became the episcopal center of the first bishop of Cuba. [1]

Spanish Colonies

At that time Cuba was inhabited by at least two distinct indigenous peoples: the Taíno and the Siboney. Both ethnic groups have a pre-historic neolithic culture, and perhaps a bronze age culture as well. Some scholars feel it is necessary to distinguish the Taíno people from the new Taíno people from Cuba, the Lucaya from the Bahamas, Jamaica, and to some extent from Haiti and Quisqueya (roughly the present-day Dominican Republic), because the new Taíno people have much more cultural input. much greater diversity and heterogeneity of peoples and ethnicities than the true high Taíno of Boriquen (Puerto Rico). Most Cubans from pre-Columbian times, including the Siboney people, can first be classified in the general group of the new Taíno. The Taíno were capable farmers and the Siboney were a hunter-gatherer society with little agriculture to support it. The Taínos and Siboney people have similar customs and beliefs, namely a sacred ritual practiced using tobacco called cohoba, or "smoking". The Taínos (Island Arawak) people are part of a cultural group commonly called the Arawak, who live