A coup d'état (French: coup d'État French pronunciation: [\ˌkü-(ˌ)dā-ˈtä\], or coup for short in French pronunciation: [\ˈkōp\], means to overthrow the legitimacy or blow against the state) is an act the reversal of power against someone in authority in an illegal and often brutal, unconstitutional manner in the form of a "takeover of power", "overthrow" of a state government by attacking (strategic, tactical, political) the legitimacy of the government then intending to accept the handover of power from the overthrown government . A coup will be successful if it can first consolidate in building legitimacy as the consent of the people and has received support or participation from non-military and military (army) parties. According to a collection of coup data from Jonathan Powell and Clayton Thyne, there were 457 attempts coups that took place from 1950 to 2010. In which 227 coup attempts were successful while another 230 failed. They found that coup attempts were frequent in Africa and the Americas (36.5% and 31%).
Political scientist Samuel P. Huntington identifies coups into three classes, namely;
A splinter coup, carried out by an armed group that could consist of the military or soldiers who were dissatisfied with the traditional government policies of the time, then carried out a movement aimed at overthrowing the traditional government and then creating a new bureaucratic elite.
A guardian coup, carried out by a group of coup d'états who will declare themselves as trustees in order to improve public order, efficiency, and end corruption, the coup leaders will describe their actions as only temporary measures and will adapt as needed. In general, a coup d'état is often carried out by changing the form of civilian government to a military form of government.
A veto coup is carried out through the participation and social mobilization of a mass group of people in carrying out large-scale, broad-based suppression of the civil opposition.
The secrecy of the agenda, not only applies vis--vis against outsiders, but also vis--vis (against) other conspirators, is the junta's first weapon, without the best preparations, the coup will surely fail.
Occurred in the Kapp Putsch in Berlin in 1920 due to the immaturity of the policies of General von Luttwitz, the commander of the operations, who on March 10 gave the socialist leaders an ultimatum to flee within 48 hours of the military coup announced on the night of 12-13 March 1920.
While preparing for the November 8, 1942 uprising in Algeria (which made Operation Torch possible), the young leader of the Algerian Action Group, José Aboulker, refused to give the names of the group leaders two days before the coup act to Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie, the head of the conspiracy. for North Africa, even though he was part of the coup plotting group and when the Patriots began to act, there was a surprise with the appearance of no less than 400 armed civilians and their reservist officers who later managed to neutralize the Vichy Algerian Army Corps, and the Vichy French government was freely released. after a few hours and returned to the city, then was able to regain control and arrest the coup perpetrators on the night of the beach landing.
The basic technique of a coup is an operation to occupy the central organs of a country, including neutralizing power by occupying symbolic places of power of the state leader.
The takeover of power, apart from occupying the central organs by the coup actors, is also accompanied by the dismissal of government officials or state power holders, because if this is not done, it will