scientific method


May 22, 2022

The scientific method is a systematic procedure or procedure used by scientists to solve problems at hand. The scientific method involves careful observation and measurement, conducting experiments, testing, and modifying hypotheses. Although the procedures of the scientific method vary and tend to be field-specific, the underlying process is often the same. The process in the scientific method involves making conjectures (explanation of hypotheses), deriving predictions from hypotheses as logical consequences, and then conducting experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. Hypotheses are conjectures, based on knowledge gained while seeking answers to questions about a problem. Hypotheses can be very specific or broad. The scientists then test the hypotheses that have been formulated through experiments or studies. Scientific hypotheses must be viewed on the side of error (falsification). It aims to identify possible results from experiments or observations made if they contradict the predictions concluded from the hypothesis. If it is not considered so, the hypothesis cannot be tested significantly. The experimental method begins with a hypothesis. Experiments are designed to test hypotheses by observing the response of one variable to changes in a number of other variables under controlled conditions. The data is analyzed to determine whether there is a relationship that confirms or refutes the hypothesis. The scientific method has a close relationship with scientific work. Scientific work is the way scientists work in solving problems by applying various regular and systematic steps as the implementation of the scientific method.


Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, is recognized as the first person to use the scientific method in seeking knowledge. This is because the analysis of the logical implications he proposes is neatly structured and different from previous philosophers. Ibn al-Haitsam or Alhazen is an Islamic scientist from the fields of science, mathematics, and philosophy who is considered the father of the modern scientific method. The approach taken by Alhazen is used to investigate phenomena, gain new knowledge, or correct and integrate previous knowledge based on data collection. This data collection is carried out through a process of observation and measurement, followed by the formulation and testing of hypotheses to explain the data. In the seventeenth century, Francis Bacon and René Descartes, tried to provide a detailed explanation of how scientists should continue the search for knowledge. Although the ideas offered in this particular scientific method seem easy to implement, during the twentieth century many philosophers and other figures became skeptical about the idea of ​​providing something like a recipe or a special method for science. Science is considered a process that is too creative and unpredictable for no recipe or method to explain it—this was especially true in the case of great scientists like Newton, Darwin, and Einstein. The scientific method is considered a bridge or scientific strategy that connects abstract logical theories and steps that are too simple. Then comes the hope of how the theory relates to the world through the generalized strategy.

Features of scientific research

Scientific research is an investigation that uses the scientific method and is guided by theories and hypotheses regarding various problems to be solved. Some of the characteristics of this scientific research are as follows.

Aiming (purposiveness)

Research activities begin with goal-setting activities, namely to solve scientific problems that are useful for the development of science. That way, through the research conducted, it can be seen whether the problem can be solved or requires