Dr. (H.C.) Drs. H. Mohammad Hatta (12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was an Indonesian statesman and economist who served as the first Vice President of Indonesia. He and Soekarno played a central role in the struggle for Indonesia's independence from Dutch colonial rule and at the same time proclaimed it on August 17, 1945. He had served as Prime Minister in the Hatta I, Hatta II, and RIS Cabinets. In 1956, he resigned as vice president.
Hatta is known for his commitment to democracy. He issued Maklumat X which became the initial pillar of Indonesian democracy. In the economic field, his thoughts and contributions to the development of cooperatives earned him the nickname the Father of Cooperatives. Hatta died in 1980 and his body was buried in Tanah Kusir, Jakarta. The Indonesian government designated him as one of the National Heroes of Indonesia on October 23, 1986 through Presidential Decree number 081/TK/1986. His name is side by side with Soekarno as Dwi-Single and pinned at Soekarno-Hatta Airport. In the Netherlands, his name is immortalized as a street name in the Zuiderpolder residential area, Haarlem.
Mohammad Hatta was born to Muhammad Djamil and Siti Saleha who came from Minangkabau. His father was a descendant of a Naqsyabandiyah cleric in Batuhampar, near Payakumbuh, West Sumatra and his mother came from a merchant family in Bukittinggi. He was born with the name Muhammad Athar on August 12, 1902. His name, Athar comes from Arabic, which means "fragrant". Athar was born as the second child, after Rafiah who was born in 1900. Since childhood, he has been educated and raised in a family environment that adheres to the teachings of Islam. His paternal grandfather, Abdurrahman Batuhampar, was known as the founding cleric of Surau Batuhampar, a few of the surau that survived the post-Padri War. Meanwhile, his mother came from a descendant of merchants. Some of his mamak are big businessmen in Jakarta.
His father died when he was seven months old. After his father's death, his mother married Agus Haji Ning, a merchant from Palembang. Haji Ning often traded with Ilyas Bagindo Marah, his maternal grandfather. Siti Saleha's marriage to Haji Ning gave birth to four children, all of whom were girls.
Education and socialization
Mohammad Hatta first received formal education in a private school. After six months, he moved to a public school and was in the same class as Rafiah, his older brother. However, his studies stopped in the middle of the third grade semester. He then moved to ELS in Padang (now SMA Negeri 1 Padang) until 1913, and continued to MULO until 1917. Outside of formal education, he had studied religion with Muhammad Jamil Jambek, Abdullah Ahmad, and several other scholars. Apart from family, trade influenced Hatta's attention to the economy. In Padang, he got to know traders who were members of the Oesaha Union and were active in the Jong Sumatranen Bond as treasurer. He continued this activity when he attended Prins Hendrik School. Mohammad Hatta remained treasurer in Jakarta. His grandfather intended to go to Mecca, and on that occasion, he was able to bring Mohammad Hatta to continue his studies in the field of religion, namely to Egypt (Al-Azhar). This was done to improve the quality of the surau in Batuhmpar, which had declined since Abdurrahman's death. However, this was protested and proposed his uncle, Idris to replace him. According to Amrin Imran's notes, Pak Gaek was disappointed and Sheikh Arsyad finally handed it over to God.
On November 18, 1945, Hatta married Rahmi Hatta and three days after their marriage, they settled in Yogyakarta. Then, they were blessed with 3 daughters named Meutia Farida Hatta, Gemala Rabi'ah Hatta, and Halida Nuriah Hatta.
Struggle and movement