Papahānaumokuākea . Marine National Monument
October 28, 2021
The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is a United States National Monument and a UNESCO World Heritage Site covering an area of 360,000 km2 of sea, including the ten islands and atolls of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. The area, which is one of the largest marine protected areas in the world, is strictly protected, except for traditional Hawaiian uses and for limited tourism. The area was declared a "Northwest Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument" by United States president George W. Bush on June 15, 2006. In 2007, his name was changed to Papahānaumokuākea. According to UNESCO, this area has deep cosmological and traditional significance for the indigenous Hawaiian culture as an ancestral area, as an embodiment of the concept of human kinship with nature, and as a place believed to be the origin the life and purpose of the spirit of the deceased. On two islands in this region, namely Nihoa and Makumanamana, there are archaeological remains from the era before the arrival of the Europeans. Most of this area consists of high seas and deep sea habitats and has distinctive places such as seamounts and underwater hills, coral reefs. wide area and many lagoons. The area supports 7,000 species, of which a quarter are endemic. Typical species from here include the critically endangered green turtle and Monachus schauinslandi (Hawaiian seals), a wide variety of birds including the laysan albatross, various plant species, and many species of arthropods. According to the NGO the Pew Charitable Trusts, lobster populations have not recovered from overfishing in the 1980s and 1990s, which is now banned; while other fishery sources are also experiencing overfishing.