Kiai Haji Muhammad Sangidu or Kanjeng Raden Penghulu Haji (K.R.P.H.) Muhammad Kamaluddiningrat (born in Kampung Kauman Yogyakarta in 1883 and buried in the Karangkajen Cemetery after his death in 1980) is the 13th Chief Penghulu Sultanate of Yogyakarta who was appointed in 1914 to replace the previous penghulu, K.R.P.H. Muhammad Khalil Kamaluddiningrat. Sangidu is a relative of Ahmad Dahlan and a supporter of the Muhammadiyah organization that Dahlan founded. He is known as the first stamboek (Muhammadiyah membership card) holder, because he was the first member of the Muhammadiyah organization. In addition, he is the person who proposed the name "Muhammadiyah" to Dahlan.
When he was the Head of the Penghulu Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Sangidu played a role in making Muhammadiyah teachings the dominant ideology in Kampung Kauman. Although there had previously been tensions between Ahmad Dahlan and the traditional clerics in Kauman Village, his cooperative approach with the court managed to avoid conflict. He also uses local culture as a medium for preaching. Sangidu also tried to change the community's wedding customs so that they only provide simple treats, and he once tried to correct 1 Shawwal (which is the date of Eid al-Fitr in the Hijri calendar) by using the rukyat bil aini method (observing by sight) instead of calculating the aboge (Javanese year). ). In addition, he pioneered the establishment of a modern school system which is now known as Madrasah Muallimin Muhammadiyah and Madrasah Muallimat Muhammadiyah, and helped pioneer Frobelschool which was the first kindergarten founded by the Indonesian people.
Raden Hariya Muhammad Sangidu is the son of Kiai Ma'ruf Ketib Tengah Amin and Nyai Sebro (Raden Nganten Ketib Amin). He was born in 1883 in Kampung Kauman. Sangidu is the eldest of five children who have younger siblings named Raden Hariya Muhsin, Raden Nganten Muhsinah, Raden Hariya Ali, and Raden Hariya Syarkowi. His father was the second of ten children of Kiai Maklum Sepuh or Kiai Penghulu Muhammad Maklum Kamaluddiningrat (the 9th Head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta), while his mother was the fourth child of Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung Ronodirdjo from his third wife named Gentang Pakem. Ronodirdjo himself was an official of the Regent of Anom Patih Danuredjo or deputy regent of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. Sangidu is also the brother of Gawan with Ahmad Dahlan who will later become the founder of Muhammadiyah. Sedulur Gawan is a relative of the result of a marriage between a widow and a widower, each of whom brings a child. The innate child then became a brother.
Sangidu's first wife (name unknown) was the daughter of Muhammad Khalil Kamaluddiningrat (the 12th Head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta). Through his first marriage, he has three children, namely Djalaluddin (husband of Siti Dariyah, father-in-law of Haiban Hadjid), Siti Salmah (wife of Farid Ma'ruf), and Siti Nafi'ah (wife of Masduki, mother-in-law of Mukti Ali). Sangidu and his father-in-law had different directions because he became a supporter of Ahmad Dahlan's da'wah movement which was later known as "Muhammadiyah". Sangidu then had a second marriage with Siti Jauhariyah (Ahmad Dahlan's sister-in-law). Through this marriage he was blessed with nine children, namely Siti Umniyah, Dariyah, Muhammad Wardan, Darim, Muhammad Jannah, Muhammad Jundi, Jazuri, Burhanah, and Wardhiyah.
Early role of Muhammadiyah development
Religious reform in Kauman Village
Before it was officially established, the spread of Muhammadiyah understanding was initially only centered in Langgar Kidul which was driven by Ahmad Dahlan by disseminating information to scholars who had the same opinion in the area around Kampung Kauman. However, these teachings gradually began to spread to other places in Kauman Village, such as