Paris

Article

July 5, 2022

Paris (French pronunciation: [/pæˈriː/] or /pəˈriː/ [paʁi] ) is the capital city of France. It is located on the river Seine, in northern France, in the heart of the le-de-France region (also known as the "Paris Region"; French: Région parisienne). The city of Paris within its administrative boundaries (unchanged since 1860) has a population of 2,167,994 (January 2006). Paris' unité urbaine (or urban area) extends beyond the administrative city limits and has an estimated population of 9.93 million (as of 2005). Aire urbaine Paris (or metropolitan area) has a population of nearly 12 million people, and is one of the most populous metropolitan areas in Europe. An important settlement for more than two millennia, Paris is today one of the world's leading business and cultural centers, and a mix of politics , education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's largest global cities. The Paris region (Île-de-France) is the largest city economy in Europe, and the fifth largest on the list of cities by world GDP. At €5000.8 billion (US$628.9 billion), the city generated a quarter of France's 2006 gross domestic product (GDP). The Paris region has 36 of the Fortune Global 500 companies in several business districts, most notably La Défense, Europe's largest business district. Paris also has many international organizations such as UNESCO, OECD, ICC and Paris Club. Paris is the most popular tourist destination in the world, with 30 million foreign visitors per year. There are a number of well-known landmarks among its attractions, along with famous institutions and the world's most popular parks.

Etymology

Paris is pronounced [paʀi] in French. Paris' Latin name was Lutetia (/lutetja/), or Lutetia Parisiorum, (French: Lutèce ([lytɛs])), which was later truncated to simply Paris. The name comes from the Parisii Gaul tribe, whose name may have been derived from a Celt Gaul word, meaning "big kettle", but is unrelated. Other authors consider the name Parisii to be derived from the Celt Gaul word parisio meaning "worker" or "craftsman." Since the early 20th century, Paris has been known as Paname ([panam]) in French slang (Moi j'suis d'Paname, meaning "I am from Paname"), a slang that has become popular among teenagers in recent years. Parisians are known as Parisian [pəˈɹɪzjənz] or [pəˈɹiː.ʒn̩z] in English and Parisien ([paʀizjɛ̃] ) in French. The word Parigot (meaning "citizen of Paris", pronounced [paʀigo] ) is sometimes used in French slang. Often considered pejorative, Parigot has good connotations, as in the famous song by Maurice Chevalier: "C'est un gars d'Ménilmontant, un vrai p'tit Parigot, ..." ("He's someone from Ménilmontant, a small Parisian, ..."). Locally, residents of the Paris suburbs are known as banlieusard [bɑ̃ljøzaʀ] ), meaning residents of the banlieue ("suburban"). Residents of the le-de-France région (Paris Region) are known officially as Francilien ([fʀɑ̃siljɛ̃] ). Parisians refer to people from outside Île-de-France as Provinciaux (from various provinces). Use of this designation, such as considering all of France as la province, is sometimes considered pejorative.

History

Beginning

The earliest archaeological signs of permanent settlement in Paris date back to 4200 BC. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, known as merchants, inhabited the area near the river Seine since 250 BC. The Romans took control of the Paris swamps in 52 BC, with permanent settlements late in the same century on the Left Bank of Sainte Geneviève Hill and the island of le de la Cité. This Gallic-Roman city was originally called Lutetia, but was Gallicized to become Lutèce. It expanded greatly over the following centuries, becoming a prosperous city with a forum, palace, pool, temple, theater and amphitheater. The fall of the Roman empire and the 13th century Germanic invasion brought ko