2019 coronavirus disease

Article

October 19, 2021

Corona virus disease 2019 (English: coronavirus disease 2019, abbreviated as Covid-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a type of coronavirus. This disease causes a pandemic. People with COVID-19 may experience fever, dry cough, and difficulty breathing. Sore throat, runny nose, or sneezing are less common. In the most susceptible sufferers, the disease can lead to pneumonia and multiorgan failure. The infection is spread from one person to another through droplets from the respiratory tract that are often produced when coughing or sneezing. The time from exposure to the virus to the onset of clinical symptoms ranged from 1–14 days with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay of a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody tests from blood serum samples can also be used with results within a few days. Infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors, and a computed tomography scan of the chest showing symptoms of pneumonia. Washing hands with soap, keeping a distance from people who are coughing, and not touching the face with unclean hands are recommended steps to prevent disease. this. It is recommended to cover the nose and mouth with a tissue or bent elbow when coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that people who suspect they have been infected wear a surgical mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor instead of visiting a clinic right away. Masks are also recommended for those caring for someone suspected of being infected but are not for use by the general public. Several countries have succeeded in making a Covid-19 vaccine. However, it is still being researched and developed further. Management provided includes treatment of symptoms, supportive care, and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated to be between 1–3%.

Signs and symptoms

Infected people may have mild symptoms, such as fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, COVID-19 sufferers are also asymptomatic. Symptoms of diarrhea or an upper respiratory infection (eg sneezing, runny nose and sore throat) are less common. Cases can progress to severe pneumonia, multiorgan failure, and death. The incubation period is estimated to be between 1–14 days by the World Health Organization (WHO) and 2–14 days by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A WHO review of 55,924 confirmed cases in China indicated the following clinical signs and symptoms:

Pathways of disease and complications

There are three main routes this disease may take. First, the disease may be mild in nature resembling other common upper respiratory illnesses. The second pathway leads to pneumonia, which is an infection of the lower respiratory system. The third pathway, the most severe, is rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Older age, d-dimer values ​​greater than 1 g/mL, and high SOFA values ​​(clinical rating scale) which assesses various organs such as lungs, kidneys, etc.) are associated with the worst prognosis. Similarly, elevated blood levels of interleukin-6, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and lymphopenia are associated with more severe disease states. Complications of Covid-19 are sepsis, as well as cardiac complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias. People with heart problems are more at risk of developing heart complications. Also, a state of hypercoagulopathy is noted in 90% of patients with pneumonia.

Cause

This disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome).

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