World War I


August 12, 2022

World War I (WW1) was a global war centered in Europe that started on July 28, 1914 until November 11, 1918. This war is often called the World War or the Great War from occurring until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I after that. This war involved all the world's great powers, which were divided into two opposing alliances, namely the Allies (based on the Triple Entente consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia) and the Central Powers (centered on the Triple Alliance consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; however, when Austria-Hungary went on the offensive while the alliance was on the defensive, Italy did not join the war). These two alliances reorganized (Italy was on the side of the Allies) and expanded as many countries joined the war. More than 70 million military soldiers, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More than 9 million soldiers died, mainly as a result of technological advances that increased the lethality of a weapon without considering improved protection or mobility. World War I was the sixth deadliest conflict in world history, thus paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in several of the countries involved. The long-term causes of this war included the imperialist foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire, British Empire, French Republic and Italy. The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Yugoslav nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina was the origin of this war. The assassination led to the Habsburg ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. A number of alliances formed over the previous decades were shaken, so that in a matter of weeks all the great powers were involved in war; through their colonies, this conflict soon spread throughout the world. On July 28, the conflict opened with the invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary, followed by German invasions of Belgium, Luxembourg, and France; and the Russian attack on Germany. After the German march in Paris stalled, the Western Front fought a battle of static attrition with trench lines that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army defeated the Ottoman forces, but was forced to withdraw from East Prussia and Poland by the German army. Other fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire entered the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915, and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia withdrew from the war after the October Revolution later that year. After the German offensive along the western front in 1918, the Allies forced German troops to retreat in a series of successful attacks and American troops began to enter the trenches. Germany, troubled by the revolution at the time, agreed to an armistice on November 11, 1918 which would later be known as Armistice Day. This war ended in victory for the Allies. The events on the British front were as violent as the front, as the parties involved attempted to mobilize their human and economic resources for total war. At the end of the war, the four great imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires—disbanded. The successor countries of the former two empires lost vast swathes of territory, while the latter two disbanded completely. Central Europe is divided into several small countries. The League of Nations was formed with the hope of preventing further conflicts of this kind. European nationalism that emerged as a result of the war and the dissolution of the empire, the impact of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Vers