World War II


November 28, 2021

World War II or World War Two (commonly shortened to WWII or WW2) was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. This war involved many countries in the world—including all the great powers—which eventually formed two mutually exclusive military alliances. opposites: Allies and Axis. This war is the largest war in history involving more than 100 million people in various military forces. In a state of "total war", the great powers maximize their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities for the purposes of war, thus eliminating the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by a number of important events involving mass civilian deaths, including the Holocaust and the use of nuclear weapons in warfare, this war claimed the lives of 50 million to 70 million people. This number of deaths made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history. The Japanese Empire sought to dominate East Asia and had started war with the Republic of China in 1937, but world war in general broke out on September 1, 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany. followed by a series of declarations of war against Germany by France and Britain. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany formed the Axis alliance with Italy, controlling or conquering most of continental Europe. After the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Germany and the Soviet Union separated and annexed the territories of their own European neighbors, including Poland. Great Britain, with its empire and Commonwealth, was the only major Allied power to continue to fight against the Axis powers, holding battles in North Africa and the Battle of the Atlantic. In June 1941, the European Axis launched an invasion of the Soviet Union which marked the opening of the largest land theater of war in history, involving the majority of the Axis military forces until the end of the war. In December 1941, Japan joined the Axis powers, invaded the United States and European territories in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly took control of most of the Western Pacific. The Axis offensive ceased in 1942, after Japan lost numerous naval battles and European Axis armies were defeated in North Africa and Stalingrad. In 1943, through a series of German defeats in Eastern Europe, the Allied invasion of Italy, and a United States victory in the Pacific, the Axis lost their initiative and retreated strategically on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded France, while the Soviet Union recaptured all the territories it had previously annexed and invaded Germany and its allies. The war in Europe ended with the occupation of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and the unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945. Throughout 1944 and 1945, the United States defeated the Japanese Navy and occupied several islands in the Western Pacific, dropping atomic bombs on the country ahead of the invasion. to the Japanese Archipelago. The Soviet Union then followed through with negotiations by declaring war on Japan and invading Manchuria. The Empire of Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945, ending the war in Asia and cementing a total Allied victory over the Axis. World War II changed the political course and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to strengthen international cooperation and prevent future conflicts. The great powers that were victorious in the war—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and France—became permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers and set the stage for the World War that would last for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of the great European powers began to weaken, and decolonization

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